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chapter 9

Preanalytical Considerations

peak levels of this analyte typically occur around 08:00 hours (fever may increase levels) cortisol
which of these tests are most affected if the patient is not fasting glucose and triglycerides
veins that feel hard and cord-like when palpated may be: thrombosed
tiny red spots that appear on the patient's arm when the tourniquet is applied are a sign that site may bleed excessively
when the arm of the patient is swollen with excess fluids, the condition is called edema
a patient has several short lengths of IV-type tubing protruding ffron his chest. This is most likesly a/an; CVC
which of the following would be most likely to allow reflux to occur during venipuncture filling the tube stopper end first
a patient complains of extreme pain when you insert the needle during a venipunture attempt. the pain does not subside, but the patient does not feel any numbness or burning sensation. you know the needle is in the vein, what sould you do discontinue the draw and attempt collection at another site
which of the following situations can result in hemoconcentration leaving the tourniquet on over 1 minte
you are in the process of collecting a specimen by venipunture. you hear a hissing sound, there is a spurt of blood into the tube, and the flow stops. what happened the vacuum escaped
most test result reference ranges are values for healthy individuals
if a venipuncture fails to draw blood and the phlebotomist senses a slight vibration of the needle, needle is against a valve
an arm that is paralyzed has no muscle function
a bariatric phlebotomy chair is designed for individuals who are overweight
an AV fistula is most commonly used for dialysis access
phase of the testing process begins for the laboratory when a test is ordered and ends when testing begins preanalyticl/ preexamination
test reuslts within this range are said to be within normal limits reference range
refers to the resting metabolic state of the body early in the morning after fasting approximately basal state
will affect test results age
RBC and WBC values are normally higher newborns than in adults
some test results show singificant variations at higher altitudes
decrease of total body fluids dehidration
a condition in which blood conponents cannot easily leave the bloodstream, become concentrated in a smaller plasma volume hemoconcentration
is a term meaning fat soluable that is used to discribe certain fatty substance of animal or vegetable origin lipid
abnormally increased blood lipids content is called lupemia
the medical term for fainting is syncope
according to CAP guidelines, drugs that interfere with blood test should be stopped 4 to 24 hours prior to the test
which of the following test is affected the most if collected from a crying infant wpc count
a hematoma may result from inadequate site pressure aplied, penetrationg through the back wall of the vein and using a needle that is too large for the vein
results of this test have a direct correlation with the patients age creatinine clearance
speciman condition that would lead you to suspect hat the patient was not fasting when it was collected cloudy whit serum
you are collecting a plasma specimen for coagulation test. the patient has an IV in the left arm near the wrist and a hematoma in the antecubital area of the rt arm. where is the best place to collect the specimen distal to the hematoma
a patients arm is in anatomical position. there appears to be a loop under the skin between the wrist and the elbow. you feel a buzzing sensation when you touch it. what you are most likely feeling is AV graft
while you are in the middle of drawing a blood specimen, your patient starts to faint. the first thing you should do is quickly release the tourniquet and remove the needle
a patient has had a mastectomy on the left side and has an IV midway down the right arm. where is the best place to perform a venipuncture below the IV on the right arm
blood loss t a point where life cannot be sustained is called exsanguination
a specimens that would most likely be rejected for testing a hemolyzed pottasium specimen
a clue that you have accidentally punctured an artery instead of a vein the blood spurts into the tube
diurnal happening daily
circadian having 24hr cycle
level's can differ as much as 50% or more between morning and late afternoon and are often ordered as timed test (theraputic monetering) diurnal/circadian
drugs that interfere with urine test should be avoided for 48 to 72 hours prior to sample
also called icterus is a condition characterized by increased bilirubin a breakdown of red blood cells in the blood jaundise
swelling caused by abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissue edema
a swelling or mass of blood that can be caused by blood leaking from the vessel during or following venipuncture hemotoma
veins located anywhere except the abdomen and chest peripheral veins
a catheter that is placed in an artery, most connonly located in the radial artery of the wrist and typically used to provide accurate and continuous measurments of blood pressure arterial line
a permanent surgical connection of an artery and vein arteriovenous (AV) shunt
a dialysis shunt created by direct peranent fusion of the artery and vein is called fistula
the vain that can be seen under the skin is called a graft
when palpated a shunt has a distinctive buzzing sensation called a thrill
also called an indwelling line, consist of tubing inserted into a mian vein or artery CVAD (central vascular access device)
line inserted into a large vein, such as sublavian or advanced into the superior vena cava, proximal to the right atrium CVC (central venous line)
line inserted into the peripheral venous system and threaded into the central venous system PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter)
sudden faintness caused by abrupt pain, stress or trauma is called vasovagel
used to describe an adverse condition brought on by the effects of treatment iatrogenic
when RBC's are damaged or destroyed and the hemoglobin they contain escapes into the fluid portion hemolysis



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