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Chabner Ch.10- Patho

Nervous System: Pathology, Laboratory, Clinical

TermDefinition
Absence Seizure form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings
Alzheimer Disease brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration, personality changes, impairment of daily functions
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) degenerative disorder of motor neurons in spinal cord and brainstem
Aneurysm enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke)
Astrocytoma malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells)
Aura peculiar sympton or sensation occuring before onset (prodromal) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure
Bell Palsy paralysis on one side of face
Brain Tumor abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges
Cerebral Angiography X ray imaging of arterial blood vessels in brain after injection of contrast material
Cerebral Concussion type of traumatic brain injury caused by blow to head
Cerebral Contusion bruising of brain tissue resulting from direct trauma to head
Cerebral Hemorrhage blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs. Type of stroke
Cerebral Palsy partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to cerebrum during pregnancy or in perinatal period
Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis samples of CSF are examined. Measures protein, glucose and RBC/WBC
Cerebrovascular Accident disruption in normal blood supply to brain; Stroke
Computed Tomorgraphy computerized x ray technique that generates multiple images of brain and spinal cord
Dementia mental decline and deterioration
Demyelination destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in multiple sclerosis)
Dopamine CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease
Doppler Ultrasound Studies sound waves detect blood flow in carotid and intracranial arteries
Electroencephalography recording of the electrical activity of the brain
Embolus clot of materials that travels through bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
Epilepsy chronic brain disorder charactierized by spontaneously and recurrent seizure activity
Gait manner of walking
Glioblastoma most malignant form of astrocytoma
Herpes Zoster (shingles) viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
HIV Encephalopathy brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS
Huntington Disease hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
Hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of fluid CSF in the brain
Ictal Event pt. to sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure
Lumbar Puncture CFS withdrawn from b/w two lumbar vertebrae for analysis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of brain and spinal cord
Meningitis inflammation of meninges; leptomeningitis
Meningocele meninges protrude to the outside of the body
Migraine severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache
Mulitple Sclerosis destruction of myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue
Myasthenia Gravis autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
Occlusion blockage
Palliative relieving symptoms but not curing them
Palsy paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function
Parkinson Disease degeneration of neurons in basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement
Positron Emission Tomorgraphy Radioactive Glucose in injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells
Shingles blisters and pain spread along peripheral nerves and are caused by inflammation due to a herpesvirus
Spina Bifida congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect)
Stereotactic Radiosurgery use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in brain
Thrombus blood clot in arteries leading to the brain
Thymectomy removal of thymus gland- lymphocyte producing gland in chest; used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
TIA Transient Ischemic Attack; occur with all 3 types of strokes- thrombolytic, embolic, hemorrhagic
Tic involuntary movement of small group of muscles, as of the face; character of Tourette Syndrome
Tonic-Clonic Seizure Major convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements
Tourette Syndrome involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; inappropriate words
Created by: jaclynn