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Chabner Ch.10- Terms

Nervous System: Pronunciation of Terms

TermDefinition
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
Afferent Nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve)
Akinetic Pt. to the absence of voluntary movement
Analgesia absence of sensitivity to pain
Anencephaly partial or complete absence of brain matter; congenital brain malformation
Anethesia lack of feeling or sensation
Aphasia loss of ability to speak or express oneself with language
Apraxia inability to carry out fmilair actions with accuracy
Arachnoid Membrane Middle layer of 3 membranes that surround brain and spinal cord
Astrocyte Star shaped neuroglial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
Ataxia condition of decreased coordination
Autonomic Nervous System Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Blood-brain barrier Protective separation b/w the blood and brain cells. Make it difficult for substances (like anticancer drugs) to penetrate capillary walls and enter brain.
Bradykinesia slow movement
Brainstem Posterior protion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Cauda Equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
Causalgia intense burning pain following injury to a sensory nerve
Cell Body part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Central Nervous System (CNS) brain and spinal cord
Cephalgia headaches may result from vasodilation of blood vessels in tissues surrounding brain or from tension in neck and scalp muscles
Cerebellar Pt. to cerebellum
Cerebellopontine Pt. to cerebellum and pons
Cerebellum posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
Cerebral Cortex Outer region of cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory
Coma state of unconsciousness from which patient cannot be aroused
Comatose pt. coma state
Cranial Nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
Dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
Dura Mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
Dyslexia developmental reading disorder occurring when the brain does not properly recognize, process, and interpret language
Dyskinesia condition marked by involuntary, spasmodic movements
Efferent Nerve (ef-away from) (-ferent-to carry) Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
Encephalitis inflammation of brain
Encephalopathy Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease associated with repetitive brain trauma
Ependymal Cell Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
Epidural Hematoma occurs b/w the skull and the dura as a result of a ruptured meningeal artery, usually after a fracture of the skull
Ganglion (plural: ganglia) collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system (outside brain and spinal cord)
Glial Cell (neuroglial cell) supports and connects the cells of the nervous system. Glial cells can reproduce themselves as opposed to neuroons
Glioblastoma (-blast= immature) highly malignant tumor. Gliomas are tumors of glial (neuroglial) cells
Gyrus (plural: gyri) sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
Hemiparesis affects either right or left side of body
Hemiplegia affects right or left half of body and results from a stroke or other brain injury. Contralateral to the brain lesion because motor nerve fibers from the right half of the brain cross to the left side of the body
Hypalgesia diminished sensation to pain
Hyperesthesia excessive sensitivity to touch or pain
Hyperkinesis excessive movement
Hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
Intrathecal Injection chemical can be delivered into subarachnoid space
Leptomeningeal the pia and arachnoid membranes are known as the leptomeninges because of their thin, delicate structure
Medulla oblongata part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, size of blood of vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
Meningeal pt to membranes, meninges
Meninges 3 productive membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Meningioma slowly growing, benign tumor in meninges
Microglial Cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
Midbrain uppermost portion of the brainstem
Motor Nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve
Myelin Sheath covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons
Myelomeningocele neural tube defect caused by failure of neural tube to close during embryonic development. Abnormality occurs in infants born with spina bifida.
Myelopathy disease of spinal cord
Myoneural pt to muscle and nerves
Narcolepsy sudden, uncontrollable compulsion to sleep
Nerve macroscopic cord-like collection of fiber (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
Neuralgia nerve pain. Involves flashes of pain radiating along the course of the trigeminal nerve, 5th cranial nerve.
Neurasthenia nervous exhaustion and fatigue, often following depression
Neuroglial Cells stromal tissue of central nervous system, which makes up its supportive framework and help it ward off infection
Neuron nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system
Neuropathy disease of peripheral nerve
Neurotransmitter chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. Stimulates or inhibits another cell EX: nerve, muscle, gland cell.
Oligodendroglial Cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. AKA oligodendrocyte
Paraplegia paralysis of both legs and lower part of body caused by injury or disease of spinal cord or cauda equina
Parasympathetic Nerves involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of gastrointestinal tract
Parenchyma essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. Parenchyma of nervous system: neurons and nerves that carry nervous impulses. Parenchyma of liver: hepatocytes Parenchyma of kidney: nephrons
Paresis partial paralysis
Paresthesia tingling, burning, pins and needles sensations
Peripheral Nervous System nerves outside brain and spinal cord: cranial. spinal, autonomic nerves
Pia Mater thin, delicate inner membrane of meninges
Plexus (plural: plexuses) large, interlacing network of nerves. EX: lumbosacral, cervical, brachial plexuses (brachi/o= arm)
Poliomyelitis viral disease affects gray matter of spinal cord, leading to paralysis of muscles that rely on damaged neurons
Polyneuritis inflammation of many nerve cells
Pons part of brain anterior to cerebellum and b/w medulla and rest of midbrain. Bridge connecting various parts of the brain
Quadriplegia all four extremities are affected. Injury is at cervical level of spinal cord
Radiculitis inflammation of nerve root. results in pain and loss of function
Radiculopathy disease of nerve root of spinal nerves
Receptor organ that receives nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. EX: skin, ears, eyes, taste buds
Sciatic Nerve nerve extenidng from base of spine down to thigh, lower leg, foot
Sciatica pain/inflammation along course of nerve
Sensory Nerve carries messages toward brain and spinal cord from receptor; afferent nerve
Spinal Nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from spinal cord
Stimulus (plural: stimuli) agent of change in internal/external environment that evokes a response EX: light, sound, touch, pressure, pain
Stroma connective, supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells make up stromal tissue of brain
Subdural Hematoma collection of blood under dura mater
Sulcus (plural: sulci) depression or groove in surface of cerebral cortex; fissure
Sympathetic Nerves autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
Synapse space through which nervous impulse travels b/w nerve cells or b/w nerve and muscle or glandular cells
Syncopal pt. to fainting
Syncope fainting; sudden and temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate flow of blood to brain
Thalamic pt. to thalamus
Thalamus main relay center of brain. Conducts impulses b/w spinal cord and cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through thalamus to appropriate centers in cerebrum
Trigeminal Neuralgia flashes of pain radiating along course of trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve)
Vagal cranial nerve has branches to head, neck, and chest
Vagus Nerve 10th cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); branches reach to larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. Vagus leaves head and "wanders" into abdominal and thoracic cavities
Ventricles of the Brain canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Also found in the heart- 2 lower chambers of the heart
Created by: jaclynn