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Medical Terminology

Chapter 4; 5; & 9 Final

Chapter 4: Musculoskeletal System Functions of the skeleton -Provides support and shape to the body through a framework of bones and cartilage. -Stores calcium and other minerals. -Produces certain blood cells within the bone marrow.
Functions of the muscles -Supply the forces that make body movements possible. -Provide a protective covering for the internal organs. -Produces body heat.
Ankyl/o crooked or stiff
Arthr/o, articul/o joint
Brachi/o arm
Cervic/o neck
Chondr/o cartilage
Cost/o rib
Crani/o skull
Dactyl/o digit (fingers or toes)
Fasci/o fiscia
Femor/o femur
Fibr/o fiber
Kyph/o humped back
Lei/o smooth
Lord/o bent
Lumb/o loin (lower back)
My/o, myos/o, muscul/o muscle
Myel/o bone marrow or spinal cord
Oste/o bone
Patell/o knee-cap
Pelv/i pelvis (basin) or hip bone
Radi/o radius
Rhabd/o rod-shaped or striated (skeletal)
Sarc/o flesh
Scoli/o twist
Spondyl/o, vetebr/o vertebra
Stern/o sternum (breastbone)
Ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendon (to stretch)
Thorac/o chest
Ton/o tone or tension
Uln/o ulna
Appendicular skeleton: -shoulder -pelvis -upper and lower extremities
Axial skeleton: -skull -vertebral column -chest -hyoid bone
Bone Specialized connective tissue composed of: -osteocytes (bone cells) that form the skeleton
Compact bone tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones
Spongy bone/cancellous bone mesh like bone tissue found in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity
Long bones bones of arms and legs
Short bones bones of wrists and ankles
Flat bones bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull
Irregular bones bones of vertebrae and face
Sesamoid bones round bones found near joints
Epiphysis wide ends of a long bone
Diaphysis shaft of a long bone
Metaphysis growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone
Endosteum membrane lining the medullary cavity of the bone
Medullary cavity cavity within the shaft of the long bones; filled with bone marrow
Bone marrow soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
Red bone marrow functions to form red blood cells, some white cells, and platelets; found in the cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
Yellow bone marrow gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
Periosteum a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
Articular cartilage a gristle like substance on bones where they articulate
Articulation a joint; the part where two bones come together
Bursa a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
Disk or disc a flat plate like structure composed of fibro-cartilaginous tissue between the vertebrae that reduce friction
Nucleus pulposus the soft fibrocartilaginous central portion of intervertebral disk
Ligament a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
Synovial membrane membrane lining the capsule of a joint
Synovial fluid joint lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
Origin of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contacts
Insertion of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
Tendon a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
Fascia a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscle.
Anatomic or anatomical position a term of reference that health professionals used when noting body planes, positions or directions; the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing fo
Body planes reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
Coronal or frontal plane vertical division of the body into (anterior) and (posterior) protion
Sagittal plane vertical division of the body into right and left portions
Transverse plane horizontal division of the of the body into upper and lower portions
Anterior/ventral front of the body
Posterior/dorsal back of the body
Anterior-posterior front to the back as in reference to the direction of an x-ray
Posterior-anterior from back to front as a reference
Superior/cephalic situated above another structure toward the head
Inferior/caudal situated below another structure away from the head
Proximal towards the beginning or origin of a structure. for example, the proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area closest to where it attaches at the hip at the end of the bone near the knee
Distal away from the beginning or origin of a structure: for example the distal aspect of the femur is
Medial toward the middle
Lateral towards the side
Axis imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
Erect normal standing position
Decubitus lateral decubitus (lying down on your side)
Prone lying face down and flat
Recumbent lying down
Supine recumbent; lying flat on the back “supine on your spine” horizontal
Flexion bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
Extension straightening at the joint so that the angle of the bones is increased
Abduction movement away from the body
Adduction movement towards the body
Eversion turning outward
Inversion turning inward
Supination turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) downward or backward
Dorsiflexion bending of the foot or the toes upward
Plantar flexion bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes towards the ground
Rotation circular movement around an axis
Range of motion (ROM) total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements (inability to flex, extend, abduct or adduct) measured in degrees
Goniometer instrument used to measure joint angles
Arthralgia joint pain
Atrophy shrinking of muscle size
Crepitation/crepitus grating sounds sometimes made by the movement of the joint or broken bones
Exostosis a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
Flaccid relaxed or having defective or absent muscle tone
Hypertrophy increase in the size of tissue such as muscle
Hypotonia reduced muscle tone or tension
Myalgia/myodynia muscle pain
Ostealgia/osteodynia bone pain
Rigor/rigidity stiffness; stiff muscle
Spasm drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle
Spastic uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements
Tetany tension; prolonged, contiguous muscle contractions
Tremor shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
Arthritis inflammation of the joint characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth and limitations of motion; there are more than 100 different types of arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) most common form of arthritis especially affecting the weight-bearing joints (knee or hip) characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) most crippling form of arthritis; systemic inflammation, most often affecting joints and synovial membranes (especially in the hands and feet) causing ankylosis and deformity
Gouty arthritis acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joint (especially in the great toe) caused by hyperuricemia (excessive amount of uric acid in the blood)
Ankylosis stiff joint
Bony necrosis bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply, such as occurring after a fracture
Bunion swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
Bursitis inflammation of the bursa
Chondromalacia softening of the cartilage
Epiphysitis inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the bone
Herniated disk protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that it causes compression on the nerve root
Myeloma bone marrow tumor
Myositis muscle inflammation
Fracture (FX) broken or cracked bone
Closed fx broken bone with no open wound
Open fx compound fx; broken bone with a open wound (broken skin)
Simple fx non-displaced fx with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair (hair line, stress or crack)
Complex fx displaced fx that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
Fracture line the line of the break in the bone
Comminuted fx broken in many small pieces
Greenstick fx bending and incomplete break of a bone; most often seen in children
Myoma muscle tumor
Leiomyoma smooth muscle tumor
Leiomyosarcoma malignant smooth muscle tumor
Rhabdomyoma skeletal muscle tumor
Rhabdomyosarcoma malignant skeletal muscle tumor
Osteoma bone tumor
Osteosarcoma malignant bone tumor
Osteomalacia disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
Rickets osteomalacia in children causes bone deformity
Osteomyelitis infection of bone and bone marrow, causing inflammation
Osteoporosis condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bone to become brittle and to fracture more easily
Spinal curvatures curvatures of the spine
Kyphosis abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back)
Lordosis abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (bent-back)
Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Spondylolisthesis forward slipping of the lumbar vertebra
Spondylosis stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
Sprain injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
Subluxation partial dislocation
Tendinitis inflammation of the tendon
Electromyogram a neurodiagnostic, graphic record or the electrical activity of muscle both at rest and during contraction; used to diagnosis neuromuscular disorders
Bone scan a nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect a tumor, malignancy, usually a full bony scan
MRI, X-Ray, CT scan & ultrasound all used to diagnosis a variety of musculoskeletal fractures and other bone disorders
Arthrogram a radiograph of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium
Amputation partial or complete removal of a limb
Arthrocentesis needle puncture for aspiration of fluid in a joint
Arthrodesis binding or fusion of joint surfaces
Arthroscopy an arthroscope to examine, diagnose and repair a joint from within
AKA above the knee
BKA below the knee
Bone graft transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another
Bursectomy excision of the bursa
Myoplasty repair of a muscle
Osteoplasty repair of a bone
Osteotomy incision into bone
Tenotomy a tendon by incision to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
Open Reduction, Internal Fixation of a fracture (ORIF) internal surgical repair of a fx by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them to a place with devices such as plates, screws and pins
Closed Reduction, External Fixation of a fracture (CREF) external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place for healing (closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture)
Orthosis use of an orthopedic application to maintain a bones position or to provide limb support, such as a brace
Physical therapy treatment to rehabilitate patients disables by an illness or injury; involves many different modalities, such as exercise, hydrotherapy, diathermy and ultrasound
Prosthesis an artificial replacement for a missing body part or a device used to improve body function, such as artificial limbs, knee or hip replacement
Analgesic a drug that relieves
Anti-inflammatory a drug that reduces inflammation
Antipyretic a drug that relieves fever
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) a group of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties such as Tylenol or Ibuprofen, commonly used to treat arthritis
Narcotic a potent analgesic with addictive properties
Chapter 5: Cardiovascular System The Heart Muscular organ Hollow interior Pumps blood throughout the body Four chambers Two upper chambers Two lower chambers
cardiovascular system The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels, which work together to transport blood throughout the body.
The Heart pt2 The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. The heart consists of four chambers; R & L atrium (upper chambers) and the R & L ventricles (lower cambers) The heart is divided into right and left portions by the interatrial septum
Cardiovascular System Cont.... The heart valves open and close to maintain the one-way flow of blood through the heart The heart has three layers: the endocardium, which lines the interior cavities of the heart; the myocardium, which is the thick, muscular layer; and the epicardium, w
Circulation through the Heart Blood, which transports essential elements within the body, flows through the heart as follows: Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the heart through the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava in to the right atrium. During atrial contraction, th
Circulation Cont Oxygenated blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins into the left atrium With atrial contraction, the mitral (or bicuspid) valve opens to allow blood flow into the left ventricle Contraction of the left ventricle pushes blood through the aorti
Angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o vessel
Aort/o aorta
Arteri/o artery
Ather/o lipid paste
Atri/o atrium
Cardi/o heart
Coron/o crown or circle
My/o muscle
Pector/o, seth/o chest
Sphygm/o pulse
Thromb/o clot
Ven/o, phleb/o vein
Varic/o twisted swollen vein
Ventricul/o ventricle (belly or pouch)
4 Chambers of the heart -Right atrium (upper chamber) -Left atrium (upper chamber) -Right ventricle (lower chamber) -Left ventricle (lower chamber)
Septum the heart separated into right and left portions
Interatrial septum separates the atria
Interventricular septum separates the ventricles
endocardium membrane that lines the interior cavities of the heart
myocardium thick, muscular layer
epicardium outer membrane
pericardium the loose, protective sac that surrounds and encloses the heart
Atrium upper right or left chamber of the heart
Endocardium membrane lining the cavities of the heart
Epicardium membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
Interatrial septum partition between the right and left atria
Interventricular septum partition between the right and left ventricles
Myocardium heart muscle
Ventricle lower right or left chamber of the heart
Pericardium protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
Visceral pericardium layer closest to the heart
Parietal pericardium outer layer
Pericardial cavity fluid filled cavity between the pericardial layers
Heart Valves open and close with the heartbeat to maintain one-way flow of blood through the heart
tricuspid valve located between right atrium and right ventricle
mitral (bicuspid) valve located between left atrium and left ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve opening from right ventricle to pulmonary artery
aortic valve located between left ventricle and aorta
arteries vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
aorta large artery branching from the left ventricle
arterioles small vessels receive blood from the arteries
capillaries tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
venules small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
veins vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
Coronary circulation circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle
Pulmonary circulation Circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
Systemic circulation Circulation of blood throughout the body via arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
Blood Pressure Force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries, veins, and heart chambers Determined by the volume of blood, the space within the arteries and arterioles, and the force of the heart contractions
Diastole A cardiac cycle period when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
Systole A cardiac cycle period when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
Normotension normal blood pressure
hypotension low blood pressure
hypertension high blood pressure
Cardiac conduction provides the electrical stimulus that is necessary to cause the heart muscle to pump blood by the continual contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of myocardial cells
Sinoatrial node (SA) the pacemaker of the heart; highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the R atrium; responsible for the initiating the electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV n
Atrioventricular node (AV) neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
Bundle of His neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinjie fibers
Purkinji fibers fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricle, causing them to contract
Polarization resting state of the myocardial cell
Depolarization change of a myocardial cell
Repolarization recharging of the myocardial cell
Normal sinus rhythm regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulation by the SA node (average rate of 60-100 beats per minute)
Aneurysm a widening; a bulging of the wall of the heart. Aorta or artery caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness
Saccular a sac like bulge on one side
Fusiform a spindle – shape bulge
Dissecting a split or tear of the vessel wall
Angina pectoris chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle; often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
Arteriosclerosis thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of arterial walls
Claudication to limp; pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
Constriction compression of a part that causes narrowing (stenosis)
Diaphoresis profuse sweating
Atherosclerosis a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by buildup of fatty substances that harden within the walls of arteries
Atheromatous plaque a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fats (lipids)
Embolus a clot
Heart murmur an abnormal heart sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
Infarct a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion in a blood vessel
Occlusion plugging; an obstruction or a closing off
Ischemia to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
Perfusion deficit lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing
Palpitation subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heartbeats
Stenosis condition of narrowing of a part the heart
Thrombus blood clot
Vegetation an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally as a result of infection
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) signs and symptoms indicating an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus, or spasm within a coronary artery, causing a reduction or loss of blood flow to myocardial tissue; includes unstable angina and other pathologica
dysrhythmia any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
Bradycardia slow heart beat less then 60
Tachycardia fast heart beat greater than 100
Fibrillation chaotic, irregular beat of the heart, can be caused by the atrium or ventricle
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) ventricular contraction preceding the normal contraction
Bacterial endocarditis a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
Cardiomyopathy a general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart caused by excessive ETOH abuse)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduce the flow of blood and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
Congenital anomaly of the heart malformations of the heart that are present at birth (congenital = born with)
Atrial septal defect (ASD) an opening in the septum separating the atria
Coarctation of the aorta narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
Patent ductus arteriosus an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus to close after birth
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
Congestive heart failure (CHF) failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in the lower portions of the body
Cor pulmonale enlargement of the right ventricle, resulting from chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
Hypertension (HTN) persistently high blood pressure
Essential/primary HTN high blood pressure attributed to no single cause; risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
Secondary HTN high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (kidney disease)
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backward flow of blood
Myocardial infarction (MI) heart attack; death of myocardial tissue caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow)
Myocarditis inflammation of myocardium
Pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
Rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (streph infection)
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) the abrupt cessation of any cardiac output (CO), most commonly as the result of ventricular fibrillation; causes sudden death unless defibrillation is initiated immediately
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac vein
Phlebitis inflammation of a vein
Thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein clot
Varicose vein abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
Auscultation physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with a stethoscope
Gallop abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
EKG (Electrocardiogram) an electrical picture of the heart
Stress electrocardiogram electrical picture of the heart while exercising
Holter monitor portable EKG worn by the patient over a 24 hour period
Intracardiac electrophysiological study (EPS) invasive procedure involving placement of catheter-guided electrodes within the heart to evaluate and map the electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias; ablation maybe performed at the same time to treat the abnormality
Ablation use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites that generate abnormal electrical pathways
Nuclear medicine imaging radionuclide organ imaging of the heart after administration of radioactive isotopes to visualize the structures and to analyze functions
Positron-emission tomography scan (PET) use of specialized nuclear isotopes and computed tomographic techniques to produce perfusion (blood flow) images and to study the cellular metabolism of the heart
Angiogram x-ray imaging a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium, most commonly after catheter placement record obtained by angiography
Coronary image of the blood vessels of the heart
Arteriogram x-rays of a particular artery
Aortogram x-rays of the aorta
Venogram x-ray of a vein
Cardiac catheterization introduction of a flexible, narrow tube (or catheter) through a vein or artery into the heart to withdrawal samples of blood to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels, and to inject contrast medium for fluoroscopic radiography and cine fil
L heart catheterization x-ray imaging of the ventricular cavity and coronary arteries of the left side of the heart
R heart catheterization Measures oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
Ventriculogram x-ray image of the ventricles
Stroke volume (SV) measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
Cardiac output (CO) measurement of the amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart
Ejection fraction measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
Echo cardiogram recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
Stress echo echo done while person exercises
Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) echo of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
Doppler ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or carotid insufficiency, or to determine blood flow through the chambers and valves
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass the occluded coronary artery restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
Endarterectomy surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
Valve replacement surgery repair to replace a disease heart valve with an artificial valve these can be made of animal tissue or made from synthetic material
Valvuloplasty surgical repair of a heart valve
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) interventional procedures used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) performed at the time of a cardiac catheterization in a specialized cath lab
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) a method for treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating the balloon to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel to restore blood flow to the myocardium; most often in
Defibrillation termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart; most commonly, this is done by applying the electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall, but it can also be performed internally, such as during op
Defibrillator device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
Cardioversion restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical current
Implantable cardioverter defibrillation (ICD) an implantable, battery-operated device with rate-sensing leads: the device monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
Pacemaker a device used to treat a slow heart rate (bradycardia) by electrically stimulating the heart to contract; most often, it is implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin, but can also be temporary and patient is paced transcutaneous
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ACE inhibitor drug used in the treatment of hypertension (HTN)
Antianginal drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the heart tissue to relieve pain from angina
Antiarrhythmic drug that counteracts cardia arrhythmia
Anticoagulant drug that prevent clotting of the blood
Antihypertensive drug that lowers blood pressure
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers) an agent used to treat angina and hypertension
Calcium channel blockers an agent used to prevent and treat angina and treat hypertension
Cardiotonic drug that increases the force of the myocardial contractions in the heart; commonly used in CHF
Diuretic drug that increases the secretion of urine; used to treat HTN
Hypolipidemic drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
Thrombolytic agents drugs used to dissolve thrombi (often called clot busters)
Vasoconstrictor drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
Vasodilator drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow
Chapter 9: Endocrine System Endocrine endocrine system secretes hormones and other substances from ductless glands and other structures Glands secrete hormones which affect function of targeted organs
Aden/o gland
Adren/o, adrenal/o adrenal gland
Andr/o male
Crin/o to secrete
Dips/o thirst
Gluc/o, glucose/o, glyc/o glucose
Hormon/o hormone
Ket/o, keton/o ketone bodies
Pancret/o pancereas
Thym/o thymus gland
Thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid
Adrenal glands located on top each kidney
adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones which regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance
adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
Steroid hormones regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance
Catecholamines Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response
Pancreas (islets of Langerhans) located behind the stomach functions to secrete insulin and glucagon
Parathyroid glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck functions to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Pineal gland located in the center of the brain secretes melatonin and serotonin
Pituitary gland located at the base of the brain secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone. adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolact
Testes Located on both sides within the scrotum in the male: secrete testosterone
Thyroid gland located in front of the neck
Thymus gland located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to above the heart; secretes thymosin
Glucosuria glucose in the urine
Hyperglycemia high blood sugar
Hypoglycemia low blood sugar
Hyperkalemia high level of potassium in the blood K+
Hypokalemia deficient level of potassium in the blood k+
Hypocalcemia low levels of calcium in the blood
Hypercalcemia high level of calcium in the blood
Hypersecretion abnormally increased secretion
Hyposecretion abnormally decreased secretion
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Polyuria excessive urination
Metabolism all chemical process in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste and other bodily function
Ketosis presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes
Cushing Syndrome a collection od signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone; may be due to excessive production by the adrenal gland
Adrenal virilism excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia
Adrenal virilism symptoms Symptoms in girls may include masculization of sex organs, low voice acne, amenorrhea and masculine hair distribution and muscle growth
Diabetes Mellitis (DM) metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas
Type 1 diabetes diabetes caused by NO beta-cells usually diagnosed within months of life, the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
Type 2 Diabetes diabetes caused by where the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance (a defective use of insulin) the patient is not normally dependent on insulin for survival
Hyperparathyroidism hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
Hyperparathyroidism symptom Aches and pains Depression Abdominal pain Nausea Vomiting
Hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion
Hypoparathyroidism symptom Symptoms Abdominal pain Brittle nails Cataracts Dry hair Dry, scaly skin Muscle cramps Muscle spasms called tetany (can affect the larynx, causing breathing difficulties)
Acromegly disease characterized by enlarged features, especially of the face and hands caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary gland
Pituitary dwarfism a condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate stature
Pituitary gigantism a condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to over growth of bone, usually caused by a tumor
Goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism hypersecretion of the thyroid gland
Hypothyroid hyposecretion of the thyroid gland
Exophthalmos protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor
Blood sugar level of sugar in the blood
FBS fasting blood sugar ( no food/fluid intake for 12 hours)
Postprandial blood sugar measurement of blood sugar after eating
Glycohemaglobin measurement of the amount of sugar on a red blood cell given an approximate 3 month average blood sugar
Glucose tolerance test measurement of how the body breaks down sugar
Electrolyte panel chemistry panel measuring potassium, calcium, chloride, sodium & CO2
Thyroid function study measurement of thyroid levels in the blood
Urine sugar & ketone study chemical test to screen for diabetes studying for ketones and sugar in the blood
CT used to visualize the pituitary gland looking for tumors
MRI used to look at abnormalities of the pituitary, pancreas, adrenal glands and the thyroid gland
Sonogram used to view the thyroid gland Thyroid uptake image ~ nuclear scan to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
Adrenalectomy excision of the adrenal gland
Hypophysectomy excision of the pituitary gland
Pancreatectomy excision of the pancreas
Parathyroidectomy excision of the parathyroid
Thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
Thyroidectomy excision of the thryroid
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) a device that delivers a constant dosing of insulin and is capable of giving a bolus of insulin with meals
Radioiodine therapy use of radioactive iodine to treat thyroid (tumor) disease
Antidiabetic medication agents used to control blood sugar
Antithyroid drug agents that block the production of thyroid hormones used to treat hyperthyroidisim
Hormone replacement therapy treatment with a hormone to correct a hormonal deficiency
Antihyperglycemic drug agent that lowers blood sugar can be injectable or via a pill
Created by: Rodney C
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