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AP HUG vocab chapt 2

rubenstein vocab

QuestionAnswer
demography scientific study of population characteristics
overpopulation number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at decent standards
ecumene portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
arithmetic density total number of people divided by land area (aka population density)
physiological density number of people supported by an unit area of arable land
arable land land suited for agriculture
agricultural density number of farmers per unit of arable land
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) percent by which a population grows in a year (excluding migration)
doubling time number of years needed to double a population- assuming a constant NIR
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) average number of children a woman will have in her child bearing years
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) annual number of deaths of infants less than one year old- usually expressed as number of deaths out of 1,000 births
life expectancy average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
demographic transition process of change in a society's population
agricultural revolution time when humans first domesticated planes and animals, humans no longer relied on hunting/gathering
industrial revolution conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market
medical revolution medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to poorer countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
zero population growth CBR and CDR are almost completely equal, NIR approaches 0
population pyramid a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and gender
dependency ratio number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years
sex ratio number of males per every 100 females
epidemiologic transition distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
epidemiology branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
pandemic a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a large percent of the population
megalopolis used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming diverse parts of the worlds
eugenic population policies government policies deigned to favor one racial sector over others
chronic diseases generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies
dot map map where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as population
population explosion the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shortening doubling times and acceleration rates of increase
child mortality rate describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population