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chapter 16

sect 1,2,3,and 4

1.) How did environment affect the development of the cultures of the Northwest Coast and the Southwest? The environment affected the development of the cultures of the Northwest Coast and the Southwest because when people settled, they settled in a secluded area by mountains and plains.
2.) In what ways did the peoples of North America share similar cultural patterns? Trading networks ties tribes together and religion shapes views of life.
3.) For what purpose did the Mound Builder cultures use earthen mounds? The Mound Builder cultures use earthen mounds to bury their dead and for religious purposes.
4.)Why did the tribes of upper New York form a political alliance? To ensure protection of tribal lands and for trade.
5.) Why might the people of the Northwest consider the potlatch to be a good way to signal standing and wealth? You were able to prove that you were wealthy enough to provide for the community and demonstrate you were self sufficient and had a surplus.
6.) Which of the causes for the fall of the Maya do you think was most important? Explain. Overpopulation because they were exhausting their environment at the same time so it wasn't possible for them to produce enough food to sustain many lives. Much of their food supply was also given to gods.
7.) What three explanations have been given for the collapse of the Maya civilization? A) Exhausted resources (used for religion instead of other things) B) Increased warfare C) Overpopulation
8.) How do the characteristics of Maya civilization compare with the characteristics of a typical civilization? The Mayan civilizations had calendars, written language, urban centers, cities, and trade unlike a typical civilization
9.) What was the basis of Maya life? A.) Agriculture (particularly maize, beans, and squash); practiced slash-and-burn; used goods for trade B.) Religion-believed each day was a living god whose behavior; offered gods food, flowers, incense, human sacrifices, blood
10.) Why was the calendar important for the Maya religion? The creators of the calendar believed each day was a living god who could be good or evil, needed to know which god was in charge of each day.
11.) How do you think the Aztecs were able to establish an extensive empire in such a relatively short period of time? -The Aztecs were preceded by two other important civilizations that traced their ancestry to the Olmec and Zapotec -Had several large shallow lakes at center -Accessible resources -Fertile soil
12.) On what was Teotihuacan's power and wealth based? -At the peak of the sixth century, Teotihuacan had a population of between -150,000 and 200,000 people, making it on of the largest cities in the world at the time. -Center of a thriving trade network that extended far into Central America
13.) How did the Aztecs rule their empire? -Military leaders held great power in Aztec society -Noble class: Military leaders, government officials, and priests
14.) Why did the Aztecs think it was necessary to make blood sacrifices to the sun god, Huizilopochtli? -Huitzilopochtli is the god of the sun and warfare -He told them to find a city of their own -He said to look for a place where an eagle perched on a cactus, holding a snake in its mouth -They found such a place on a small island in Lake Texcoco
15.)How were the Aztecs able to overcome the problems associated with Tenochtitlan's island location? -Aztec engineers built three raised roads, called causeways, over the water and -Canals that intersected with these roadways allowed canoes to bring people directly into the city center -Canoes brought goods from far away to the economic part of the city
16.) Which of these methods for unification were acceptable to the conquered people? Explain. a) During the early period, Inca developed traditions and beliefs that helped launch and unify their empire b) Such as the belief that an Incan ruler was descended from the sun god, Inti, who would bring prosperity and greatness to the Incan state.
17.) How were the Inca able to conquer such a vast empire? a) Powerful and ambitious ruler b) In 1438 he took the thrown and under his leadership, the Inca conquered all of Peru and then moved into neighboring lands d) Accomplished this through diplomacy and military force
18.) What methods did the Inca use to create unity among the diverse peoples in their empire? a) Rulers divided their territory and its peoples into manageable units, governed by the central bureaucracy b) Efficient economic system to tie it together c) Single language: Quechua (used in schools to teach Incan ways) d) Control
19.) What role did the mita play in building the Incan Empire? Mita was the labor tribute, which required all able bodied citizens to work for the state a certain number of days a year.
20.) How did the Inca overcome geographical obstacles in building and ruling their empire? A system of runners known as chasquis traveled roads that went throughout the empire delivering messages from one end to the other.
21.) What was the most important resource for the peoples of the Northwest? Why? The most important resource for the peoples of the Northwest is the ocean because they used it for many things.
22.) Why was trade important to the Maya civilization? So they could get resources they didn't have. Main source of income was agriculture, but they needed to use trade to gain things to farm with.
23.) How did the Aztec need for victims for sacrifice lead to problems controlling the empire? -Sacrificial victims included enslaved persons, criminals, and people offered as tribute by conquered provinces -A number of provinces rose up against Aztec oppression (unrest/rebellion) -Arrival of the Spanish
24.) Why do you think the Inca used the ayllu system as the basis for governing in the empire? They divided families into groups of 10, 100 etc., which enforced community cooperation, which lead to a welfare state.
25.) Why might the location have been important to the power and wealth of the Mississippian culture? The closer to the river you are, the closer you are to the trade of goods and foods.
Created by: reesem