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Ch. 8

Chabner Language of Medicine 11th Edition / Female Reproductive System

Adnexa Uteri Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and supporting ligaments.
Amnion Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus.
Areola Dark-pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple.
Bartholin Glands Small mucus-secreting exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice (opening to outside of body). Caspar Bartholin was a Danish anatomist who described the glands in 1637.
Cervix Lower, neck-like portion of the uterus.
Chorion Outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it forms the fetal part of the placenta.
Clitoris Organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior(near front) to the opening of the female urethra.
Coitus Sexual intercourse; copulation.
Corpus Luteum Empty ovarian follicle that secretes progesterone after release of the egg cell; literally means yellow (luteum) body (corpus).
Cul-De-Sac Region in the lower abdomen, midway between the rectum and the uterus.
Embryo Stage in prenatal development from 2 to 8 weeks. After many cell divisions a ball of cells forms and the zygote becomes this.
Endometrium Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus.
Estrogen Hormone produced by the ovaries that promotes female secondary sex characteristics
Fallopian Tube One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus; also called an "Oviduct". The tubes were named for Gabriello Fallopia, an Italian anatomist.
Oviduct One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus; also called fallopian tube.
Fertilization Union of the sperm cell traveling into the fallopian tube where they can penetrate the ovum from which the embryo develops. Nuclei of the 2 gamete unite to form a single nucleus with half the chromosomes and genetic code from each parent.
Fetus Stage in prenatal development from 8 to 39 or 40 weeks.
Fimbriae (singular: fimbria) Finger- or fringe-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum).
Gamete Male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum. Has half the number of chromosomes needed to create a new organism.
Genitalia Reproductive organs; also called genitals.
Gestation Period from fertilization of the ovum to birth.
Gonad Female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis.
Gynecology Study of the female reproductive organs including the breasts.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (-tropin) the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.
Hymen Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina.
Labia Lips of the vagina; labia majora are the larger, outermost lips, and labia minora are the smaller, innermost lips.
Lactiferous Ducts Tubes that carry milk within the breast.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation.
Mammary Papilla Nipple of the breast. A papilla is any small nipple-shaped projection.
Papilla Any small nipple-shaped projection.
Menarche Beginning of the first menstrual period and ability to reproduce.
Menopause Gradual ending of menstruation.
Menstruation Monthly shedding of the uterine lining. The flow of blood and tissue normally discharged during menstruation is called the menses. (Latin mensis means month).
Menses Flow of blood and tissue normally discharged menstruation. The monthly shedding of the uterine lining. is called menstruation. (Latin mensis, means month).
Myometrium Muscle layer of the uterus.
Neonatology Branch of medicine that studies the disorders and care of the newborn (neonate).
Obstetrics Branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy and childbirth.
Orifice An opening.
Ovarian Follicle Developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary.
Ovary One of a pair of female organs (gonads) on each side of the pelvis. Ovaries are almond-shaped, about the size of large walnuts, and produce egg cells (ova) and hormones.
Ovulation Release of the ovum from the ovary.
Ovum (plural: Ova) Female sex cell. Mature egg cell (female gamete). Ova develop from immature egg cells called oocytes.
Parturition Act of giving birth.
Perineum In females, the area between the anus and the vagina.
Pituitary Gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain. It produces hormones that stimulate the ovaries. The pituitary gland also regulates other endocrine organs.
Placenta Vascular organ attached to the uterine wall during pregnancy. It permits the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and fetus.
Pregnancy Condition in a female of having a developing embryo and fetus in her uterus for about 40 weeks.
Progesterone Hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women.
Puberty Point in the life cycle at which secondary sex characteristics appear and gametes are produced.
Uterine Serosa Outermost layer surrounding the uterus.
Uterus Hollow; pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo and fetus develop, and from which menstruation occurs. The upper portion is the fundus; the middle portion is the corpus; and the lowermost, neck-like portion is the cervix.
Vagina Muscular, mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body.
Vulva External female genitalia; includes the labia, hymen, clitoris, and vaginal orifice.
Zygote Stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation up to 2 weeks.
amni/o Amnion
Amniocentesis The sampling of amniotic fluid using a * hollow needle inserted into the uterus, to screen for developmental abnormalities in a fetus. *centesis
Amniotic Fluid Produced by fetal membranes and the fetus. Fluid surrounding the fetus, contained in the amniotic sac.
bartholin/o Bartholin gland
Bartholinitis Inflammation of one or both of the two Bartholin's glands, which are located one on either side of the opening of the vagina, behind the labia (lips). *Bartholin cyst is fluid filled swelling in the bartholin glands
cervic/o cervix, neck
Endocervicitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine cervix.
chori/o, chorion/o Chorion
Chorionic Of, relating, or pertaining to the chorion.
colp/o Vagina
Colposcopy Procedure to closely examine cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease.
culd/o cul-de-sac
Culdocentesis A needle placed through the posterior wall of the vagina and fluid is withdrawn for diagnostic purposes.
episi/o Vulva
Episiotomy Incision is made through skin of the perineum& enlarges the vaginal orifice for delivery. (a surgical cutmade at the opening of the vagina during birth, to aid difficult delivery and prevent rupture of tissues.)The incision is repaired by perineorrhaphy.
galact/o Milk
Galactorrhea Abnormal, persisten discharge of milk, commonly seen with pituitary gland tumors.
gynec/o Woman, Female
Gynecomastia Enlargement of breasts in a male. It often occurs with puberty or aging, or the condition can be drug-related.
hyster/o Uterus, Womb
Hysterectomy Removal of Uterus/womb
Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH) The removal of the entire uterus (including the cervix) through an abdominal incision.
Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH) Is removal through the vagina.
Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy Is a partial hysterectomy that preserves the cervix.
Hysteroscopy A gynecologist uses an endoscope (passed through the vagina and cervix) to view the uterine cavity.
lact/o Milk
Lactation The normal secretion of milk.
mamm/o Breast
Inframammary Below breast. (usually inframammary fold/crease) Where below the breast meets the chest.
Mammoplasty Surgical procedure of breasts. ( Includes reduction, and augmentation [ enlargement ] operations)
mast/o Breast
Mastitis Inflammation of breast. Usually caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infection.
Mastectomy Surgical operation to remove breast.
men/o Menses, Menstruation
Amenorrhea An abnormal absence of menses ( for 6 months or for more than three of the patient's normal menstrual cycles )
Dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation usually in the abdominal
Oligomenorrhea Infrequent or scanty/small menstrual periods.
Menorrhagia Abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods. ( Fibroids are a leading cause of menorrhagia )
metr/o, metri/o Uterus
Metrorrhagia Bleeding between menses. Possible causes include ectopic pregnancy, cervical polyps, and ovarian and uterine tumors.
Menometrorrhagia Excessive uterine bleeding during and between menstrual periods.
my/o, myom/o Muscle, Muscle tumor
Myometrium Smooth muscle tissue of the uterus.
Myomectomy Surgical removal of fibroids rom the uterus.
nat/i Birth
Neonatal Relating to newborn children (or mammals)
obstetr/o Pregnancy and childbirth
Obstetrics Branch of medicine and surgery concerned with childbirth and the care of women giving birth.
Carcinoma of the cervix , _____ _ __ ___ Malignant cells within the cervix ( cervical cancer )
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ___ ___ the most important cause of/and risk factor for cervical cancer.
Genital Warts Benign growths on the vulva, cervix, vagina, or anus. ( Some types of HPV can cause this, while other types of HPV can cause cancer, esp. types 16 and 18
HPV types 16 & 18 Common types of HPV to cause cancer
Dysplasia Abnormal cell growth
Carcinoma in Situ (CIS) A localized form of cancer.
Carcinoma in Situ (CIS) is treated by .... ... A Conization (local resection)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) Preinvasive neoplastic lesions , diagnosed by a pap test
Pap Test Microscopic examination of cells scraped from cervical epithelium .then graded from CIN 1 to CIN 3
Cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix
Bacterias, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ... ... common cause of cervicitis
Cervical Erosions (ulcerations) Appears as raw, red patches on the cervical mucosa
Leukorrhea / Cervical Erosion Clear, white, or yellow pus-filled vaginal discharge, also a sign of CERVICAL EROSION
Cryocauterization Destroying tissue by freezing the eroded area and treatment with antibiotics may be indicated
Carcinoma of the Endometrium ( endometrial cancer ) Malignant tumor of the uterine lining ( adenocarcinoma )
Dilation / Dilatation Widening the cervical canal
Curettage Scraping the inner lining of the uterus
Endometriosis Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
Lumen Opening of the fallopian tube
Endometriomas or "Chocolate Cysts" When disease affects the ovaries and large blood-filled cysts develop
Fibroids Benign tumors in the uterus
Leiomyomata or Leiomyomas AKA Fibroids, composed of fibrous tissue and muscle
Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) Tiny pellets acting as emboli are injected into the uterine artery, blocking blood supply to fibroids, causing them to shrink. ( This is fibroid ablation/destruction without surgery )
Ovarian Carcinoma (cancer) Malignant tumor of the ovary ( adenocarcinoma )
Adenocarcinoma Malignant tumor of the ovary ( Ovarian Carcinoma/cancer)
2 most common types of ovarian cancer Serous (clear fluid) and Mucinous (thick, pasty fluid) ....Cystic Adenocarcinomas
Ascites Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
BRCA1 and BRCA2 Breast Cancer 1 & 2 -- Genetic mutations associated with increased risk for breast cancer.
Prophylactic (preventative) Oophorectomy Significantly reduces the odds of developing ovarian cancer if a woman is at high risk
Ovarian Cysts Collections of fluid within sacs (cysts) in the ovary.
Follicular Cysts Benign, and lined by typical cells in the ovary. Originate in UNRUPTURED ovarian follicles.
Luteal Cysts Benign and lined by typical cells in the ovary. Originate in RUPTURED ovarian follicles and have been IMMEDIATELY SEALED.
Cystadenocarcinomas Malignant and lined with atypical or tumor cells.
Dermoid Cysts Contain a variety of cell types, incl. skin, hair, teeth, cartilage, and arise from immature egg cells in the ovary. ( b/c of strange assortmt. of tissue types i is often called BENIGN CYSTIC TERATOMA or MATURE TERATOMA)
Benign Cystic Teratoma / Mature Teratoma Contain a variety of cell types, incl. skin, hair, teeth, cartilage, and arise from immature egg cells in the ovary. ( often called DERMOID CYSTS )
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( PID ) Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region; salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, endocervicitis. ( Leading cause is STIs ) ( signs&symptoms fever, vaginal discharge, adbominal pain in LLQ & RLQ and tenderness to palpation of the cervix. )
Palpation Examining by touch
Types of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) : Gonorrhea (gonococcal bacteria), Chlamydial Infection (chlamydial bacteria), Syphilis (spirochete bacteria), Genital Herpes (herpes simplex virus--HSV), HPV Infection and Genital Warts (human papillomavirus)
Carcinoma of the Breast ( breast cancer ) Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts)
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Most common type of breast cancer
Lobular & Medullary Carcinoma of the breast Other histopathologic breast cancer beginning in the milk producing glands and milk duct and spreads.
Stereotactic Core Needle Biopsy To first establish a diagnosis, this is performed with the help of mammography for guidance.
Lumpectomy For small primary tumors, the lump with immediately surrounding tissue can be removed.
Sentinel Node Biopsy ( SNB ) Determines whether the tumor has spread to lymph nodes
Mastectomy Removal of the entire breast.
Estrogen Receptors ( ERs ) A group of proteins found inside cells. They are receptors that are activated by the hormone estrogen, important to test the breast cancer tumor for the presence of ERs. If ER+ in tumor this indicates that the tumor will respond to hormonal therapy.
Drugs of first type A type of drug that directly blocks ER reception. Ex: TAMOXIFEN
TDrugs of second type Drugs that black the production of estrogen by inhibiting the enzyme, aromatase
Aromatase Inhibitors Particularly useful in treating postmenopausal women. ( Ex: Anastrozole ( Arimidex ) and Letrozole ( Femara ).
HER2 A second receptor protein. Found in some breast cancers and signals a high risk of tumor recurrence.
Herceptin Antibody that binds to and blocks HER2, effective in stopping growth when used with chemotherapy. receptors on the surface of breast cancer cells and blocks them, by blocking the signals, the drug can slow or stop the growth of breast cancer
Triple-Negative Tumors Lack estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 and are rapidly growing but respond well to chemotherapy
BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA1&2 ) Testing for those hereditary mutations is advised for women with a strong family history of breast cancer.
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Numerous small sacs of fluid surrounded by dense strands of fibrous tissue in the breast.
Abruptio Placentae Premature separation of the normally implanted placenta. Occurs because of trauma, such as a fall or being secondary to vascular insufficiency resulting from hypertension or preeclampsia.
Ectopic Pregnancy Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location. Occurs in 1-2% of pregnancies.
Tubal pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy when it occurs in the fallopian tubes.
Multiple Gestations More than one fetus inside the uterus. ( This is increasing in the US because of Assisted Reproductive Technology [ART], such as ovulation induction followed by intrauterine insemination [IUI] or In Vitro Fertilization [IVF]. )
Placenta Previa Implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus. (S&S: painless bleeding, hemorrhage, and premature labor. Cesarean delivery usually is recommended) *Previa means before or in front of.
Placenta Accreta Implantation of the placenta on the wall but not in muscle
Placenta Increta Implantation of the placenta in uterine muscle
Placenta Percreta Implantation of the placenta attaching to another organ.
Preeclampsia Abnormal condition associated with pregnancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, edema, and headache.
Eclampsia Final and most severe phase of untreated preeclampsia. Often causes seizures and even death of the mother and baby.
The Apgar Score A system of scoring an infant's physical condition at 1 and again 5 minutes after birth. Heart rate, Respiration, Color, Muscle Tone, and Response to Stimuli, each rated 0, 1, or 2. Max total is 10. Scores <7 require immediate medical attention.
Down Syndrome Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes.
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease in the newborn (HDN) caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.
Hyaline Membrane Disease Acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn. AKA Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the newborn, RDS) cause by deficiency of surfactant (protein necessary for proper lung function)
Surfactant Protein necessary for proper lung function. Can be administered to the newborn to cure the condition.
Hyaline refers to the shiny membrane (hyaline means glassy) that forms in the lung sacs.
APGAR score acronym Appearance (color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (response to catheter in nostril), Activity (muscle tone), Respiration (respiratory effort).
Hydrocephalus Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain. This occurs because of a problem in the circulation of fluid within the brain and spinal cord,resulting in fluid accumulation.
Fontanelle Soft spot on infants skull between the cranial bones that allows for some swelling during the birth of the baby.
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Abnormal inhalation of meconium (thick, stick, greenish to black substance, first stool from newborns) produced by a fetus or newborn. if meconium passes into amniotic fluid, could be breathed in and create inflammation in baby's lungs after birth
Pyloric Stenosis Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum. Freq. associated with Down Syndrome. Surgical repair of the pyloric opening may be necessary.
Pap Test (Pap Smear) Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix. To detect vaginal or cervical abnormalities.
Speculum (vaginal) Instrument to hold apart the vaginal walls.
Pregnancy Test Blood or urine to detect the presence of hCG.
Hysterosalpingography (HSG) X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material. Used to evaluate tubal patency (adequate opening) and uterine cavity abnormalities.
Mammography X-ray imaging of the breast. Recommended every 1 year after age 40. (New way is digital tomosynthesis)
Digital Tomosynthesis X-ray tube moves in an arc around the breast as several images are taken. Are sent to a computer, are clear HQ 3D pictures. It's less painful and makes breast cancer easier to find in dense breast tissue.
Breast Ultrasound Imaging and Breast MRI Technologies using sound waves and a magnetic field to create images of breast tissue. Can confirm presence of a mass & distinguish a cystic from solid mass.
Pelvic Ultrasonography Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region. Evaluates fetal size& anatomy as well as fetal and placental position and tumors, pelvic masses, & abscesses.
Transvaginal Ultrasound Allows the radiologist a closer sharper look at organs within the pelvis or abdomen. Probe is placed in the vagina instead of over the pelvis or abdomen. This method is best to evaluate flui-filled cysts.
Aspiration Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument ring.
Aspiration Needle Biopsy A valuable evaluation technique for patients with breast disease.
Cauterization Destruction of tissue by burning, with chemicals (silver nitrate) or an electrically heated instrument. To treat cervical dysplasia or cervical erosion and more.
Loop Electrocautery Excision Procedure (LEEP) Used to further assess and often treat abnormal cervical tissue.
Colposcopy Visual examination of the vagina and colposcope (lighted magnifying instrument resembling a small, mounted pair of binoculars)
AB Abortion
AFP Alpha Fetoprotein
Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) High levels in amniotic fluid of fetus or maternal serum indicate increased risk of neurologic birth defects in the infant.
BSE Breast Self Examination
CA-125 Protein marker elevated in ovarian cancer (normal range of values is 0 to 35 U/mL)
C-Section / CS Cesarean Section
CIN Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
CIS Carcinoma in Situ
CVS Chorionic Villus Sampling
Cx Cervix
D&C Dilation (dilatation) and Curettage
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) A precancerous breast lesion that indicates a higher risk for invasive ductal breast cancer.
DCIS Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
DUB Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
FHR Fetal Heart Rate
FSH Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
G Gravida (pregnant)
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Secreted by the hypothalamus to stimulate release of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) from the pituitary gland
GnRH Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
GYN Gynecology
hCG or HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
HDN Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
HPV Human Papillomavirus
HRT Hormone Replacement Therapy
HSG Hysterosalpingography
IUD Intrauterine Device; contraceptive
IVF In Vitro Fertilization
LEEP Loop Electrocautery Excision Procedure
LH Leuteinizing Hormone
LMP Last Menstrual Period
multip Multipara; Multiparous
OB Obstetrics
para 2-0-1-2 A Woman's reproductive history: Ex: 2 full-term infants, 0 preterm, 1 abortion, and 2 living children.
Pap test Test for cervical or vaginal cancer
PID Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PMS Premenstrual Syndrome
primip Primipara; primiparous
SLN biopsy or SNB Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLN biopsy or SNB) Blue dye or a radioisotope (or both) identifies the first lymph node draining the breast lymphatics
TAH-BSO Total Abdominal Hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy
UAE Uterine Artery Embolization
VH Vaginal Hysterectomy
Conization Removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix. Physician resects the tissue using a LEEP (loop electrocautery excision procedure) or with carbon dioxide laser or surgical knife (scalpel)
Cryosurgery Use of cold temperature to destroy tissue. A liquid nitrogen probe produces the freezing temperature. AKA Cryocauterization.
Cryocauterization Use of cold temperature to destroy tissue. A liquid nitrogen probe produces the freezing temperature. AKA Cryosurgery
Culdocentesis Needle aspiration of fluid filled from the cul-de-sac. Physician inserts a needle through vagina into the cul-de-sac. Presence of blood may indicate a ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cyst.
Dilation (Dilatation) and Curettage (D&C) Widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus. Dilation is accomplished by inserting a series of dilators of increasing diameter. A curet (metal loop at the end of a ling thin handle) used to sample uterine lining.
Exenteration Removal of internal organs within a cavity.
Pelvic Exenteration Removal of organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis.
Laparoscopy Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope. (laparoscope)
Minimally Invasive Surgery ( MIS ) Small incisions 5 to 10mm long
Morcellation Cutting up uterine tissue in the abdomen
Tubal Ligation Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization.
Sterilization Making an individual incapable of reproduction
Ligation Tying off Does not pertain solely to the fallopian tubes, which may be "tied" using clips or bands or by surgically cutting or burning through the tissue.
Abortion (AB) Termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own. SPONTANEOUS (commonly called miscarriages) or INDUCED (THERAPEUTIC or ELECTIVE) Therapeutic ab is when the health of the pregnant woman is endangered. Elective ab is by request
Amniocentesis Needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis. Cells of fetus found in fluid are grown and studied to check fetal chromosomes, concentration of proteins and bilirubin and fetal maturation
Cesarean Section ( CS / C-section ) Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus. Needed if: Cephalopelvic Disproportion (babys head is too big), abruptio placentae or placenta previa, fetal distress (fetal hypoxia), and breech or shoulder presentation.
Chorionic Villus Sampling ( CVS ) Sampling placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis. Tissue removed with a catheter inserted into the uterus, can be performed at 10 or more weeks of gestation.
Fetal Monitoring Continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions to assess fetal status and the progress of labor.
In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF ) Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization. After incubation period of 3 to 5 days, the fertilized ova are injected into the uterus through the cervix
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection ( ICSI ) Directly injecting sperm into harvested ova. 30% to 50% of all IVF procedures are now associated with this.
Oogenesis the production or development of an ovum.
Oocyte Immature ovum a cell in an ovary that may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum.
oophor/o Ovary
Oophorectomy Surgical removal of one or both ovaries
ov/o egg
Ovum Mature female egg cell
ovari/o Ovary
Ovarian Relating or pertaining to an ovary or ovaries
ovul/o Egg
Anovulatory When the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle. When ovulation does not occur in the menstrual cycle
perine/o Perineum
Perineorrhaphy Suture of the perineum (usually to repair a laceration occurring during labor)
phor/o to bear
Oophoritis Inflammation of an ovary
salping/o Fallopian tubes
Salpingectomy Surgical removal of a fallopian tube or both
uter/o Uterus
Uterine Prolapse The uterus sags or slips from its normal position and into the vagina, or birth canal.
vagin/o Vagina
Vaginal Orifice Relating to the opening of the vagina
Vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina. Bacteria and yeasts (usually candida) commonly cause this infection. Use of antibiotic therapy may cause loss of normal vaginal bacteria, resulting in an environment allowing yeast to grow
vulv/o Vulva
Vulvovaginitis Inflammation of the vulva and vagina
Vulvodynia Chronic pain syndrome occurring in the vulvar area.
-arche Beginning
Menarche The first menstruation
-cyesis Pregnancy
Pseudocyesis False pregnancy
-gravida Pregnant
Primigravida A woman who is pregnant for her first time
-parous Bearing, Bringing forth
Primiparous Adjective describing a woman who has given birth (bearing/bringing forth) to at least one child (ex: gravida & para, G2P2 is shorthand for a woman whos had 2 pregnancies and 2 deliveries)
-rrhea Discharge
Leukorrhea Whitish or yellowish discharge of mucus from the vagina. (If it becomes more yellow [purulent or pus-containing] it's a sign of infection)
Menorrhea The flow (discharge) of blood during menstruation
-salpinx Fallopian (uterine) tube
Pyosalpinx Pus in the fallopian tube
-tocia Labor, Birth
Dystocia Difficult or painful labor/birth
Oxytocia Quick labor/birth. Pituitary gland releases OXYTOCIN which stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract (labor begins), it also stimulates milk secretion from mammary glands.
-version Act of turning
Cephalic Version The fetus turns so that the head is the body part closest to the cervix
Fetal Presentation The manner in which the fetus appears to the examiner during delivery
Breech Presentation Buttocks first, or feet first in a footling breech
Cephalic Presentation Head first
Dys- Painful
Dyspareunia Painful sexual intercourse
Endo- Within
Endometritis Inflammation within the uterus inflammation of the endometrium (mucous membrane lining the uterus [which thickens during the menstrual cycle in preparation for possible implantation of an embryo.])
In- In
Involution of the Uterus Uterus returns to its normal, non-pregnant, size.
Intra- Within
Intrauterine Device ( IUD ) Device within the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
Multi- Many
Multipara A woman who has had more than one pregnancy and * deliveries *
Multigravida A woman who has been pregnant more than once.
Nulli- No, Not, None
Nulligravida A woman who has never been pregnany
Nullipara A woman who has never delivered children
Pre- Before
Prenatal Before birth, during or relating to pregnancy
Primi- First
Primipara A woman giving birth for the first time.
Retro- Backward
Retroversion The uterus is abnormally tilted backward Occurs in 30% of women.
Nulliparous Nulliparous Women who has never given birth either by choice or for any other reason
Cervix of nulliparous woman : The os or opening is small and perfectly round
Cervix of parous woman : The os is wide and irregular
Hormone Replacement Therapy ( HRT ) Treatment with estrogens, given orally or as a transdermal patch or vaginal ring with the aim of alleviating menopausal symptoms or to delays the development of osteoporosis.
Sperm Male sex cell,(male gamete)
Created by: AbiNoel
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