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Ch.7

Chabner Language of Medicine 11th Edition / Urinary System

TermDefinition
Arteriole Small artery
Calciferol Active form of vitamin D, secreted by the kidney
calyx or calix (plural: calyces or calices) "Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis." The term comes from Greek, kalux, meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud.
Catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids
Cortex Outer region of an organ
Renal Cortex Outer region of the kidney
Cortical Pertaining to the outer section of the kidney (cortex)
Creatinine Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. A product of muscle metabolism.
Creatinine clearance A measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood.
Electrolyte "Small molecule that carries an electrical charge in solution." Are necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves. The kidneys maintain the proper balance of electrolytes and water in the blood. (Potassium/K & Sodium/Na are electrolytes)
Erythropoietin (EPO) "Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells" by bone marrow. (Thus increases amt of oxygen to muscles, enhances athletic endurance).
Filtration Process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter.
Glomerular Capsule Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. AKA Bowman's Capsule and it collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
Glomerulus (plural: Glomeruli) Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidney.
Hilum Depression in an organ/"Notch on surface of kidney where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave". Also used in the resp. sys. to mark the depression in the lung where blood vessels, bronchus, and lymphatic vessels enter and leave.
Kidney One of two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine.
Meatus Opening or canal (eg: urinary meatus)
Medulla Inner region of an organ.
Renal Medulla Inner, middle region of the kidney.
Medullary Cavity in long bones is the innermost part containing red and yellow marrow.
Nephron Combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, re-absorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. (The functional unit of the kidney capable of forming urine by itself. ~1mil nephrons per kidney)
Nitrogenous Waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine. Ex: urea, uric acid, and creatinine.
Potassium (K+) "This electrolyte is secreted by renal tubules into the urine and regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood". Is essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses.
Reabsorption Process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
Renal Artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
Renal Pelvis Central collecting region in the kidney.
Renal Tubule Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
Renal Vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart.
Renin "Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure", by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
Vasoconstriction Narrowing of blood vessels
Sodium (Na+) Electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and other metabolic functions. A common form of sodium is sodium chloride, table salt.
Trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder (where ureters enter and the urethra exits)
Urea Major "nitrogenous waste" excreted in the urine.
Ureter One of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Urethra Tube leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Uric Acid Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
Urinary Bladder Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine.
Urination (Voiding) (Micturition) Process of expelling urine
Voiding (Urination) (Micturition) Process of expelling urine
Micturition (Voiding) (Urination) Process of expelling urine
Homeostasis The body's ability to maintain an equilibrium within its internal environment. By the kidney adjusting the amounts of water and electrolytes by secreting substances into urine and holding back others in the bloodstream.
Urinary Meatus External opening to the of the urethra
Glomerular Filtration 1. Water, Sugar, Wastes, Salts
Tubular Reabsorption 2. Water, Sugar, Sodium
Tubular Secretion 3. Acids, Potassium, Drugs
cali/o, calic/o Calyx (calix); cup-shaped
Caliectasis Dilation of calyx
Caliceal Of or relating to calyx
cyst/o Urinary bladder
Cystitis Inflammation of urinary bladder. Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage.
Cystectomy Removal of the urinary bladder
Cystostomy "Surgical formation of an opening from the bladder to the outside of the body" New surgical opening is made into the urinary bladder from the outside of the body. (For catheters sometimes)
glomerul/o Glomerulus
meat/o Meatus
(Urinary) Meatal Stenosis Narrowing of the meatus (urinary opening/canal)
nephr/o Kidney
Paranephric Adjacent to the kidney
Nephropathy Disease of kidney
Nephroptosis "Prolapse of a kidney" Downward displacement or dropping of a kidney when its anatomic supports are weakened.
Nephrolithotomy "Surgical incision into the kidney to remove a stone."
Hydronephrosis Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi, compression of the ureter by tumor, or hyperplasia of the prostate gland at the base of the bladder in males.
Nephrostomy "Creation of an artificial opening into the kidney,via catheter from the outside of the body." Surgical opening to the outside of the body from the renal pelvis into the kidney. Is necessary when a ureter becomes obstructed & it cannot be removed easily.
pyel/o Renal pelvis
Pyelolithotomy "Incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis." Removal of a large calculus (stone) contributing to blockage of urine flow and development of infection. The renal pelvis is surgically opened.
ren/o Kidney
Renal Ischemia The deficiency of blood in one or both kidneys or nephrons, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel.
Renal Colic "Severe pain resulting from a stone that is blocking a ureter or a kidney" Intermittent spasms of pain in the kidney(s) caused by calculi in the kidney or ureter. (usually from inflammation and distention of an organ)
trigon/o Trigone (region of the bladder)
Trigonitis Inflammation of the trigone
ureter/o Ureter
Ureteroplasty Surgical reconstruction or repair of the ureter.
Ureteroileostomy "New opening between the ureter & the ileum (anastomosis); urine then leaves body through an ileostomy; this surgery (ileal conduit) is performed when bladder has been removed," "New opening of the ureters to a segment of ileum (in place of bladder)"
urethr/o Urethra
Urethritis Inflammation of the urethra
Urethroplasty Surgical reconstruction or repair of the urethra
Urethral Stricture An abnormal narrowing of the urethra
vesic/o Urinary Bladder
Intravesical Of or pertaining to inside the urinary bladder
Vesicoureteral Reflux "Backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter" A condition in which urine flows backward (or retrograde) from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys.
albumin/o Albumin (a protein in the blood)
Albuminuria "Condition of protein in urine" Leaky glomeruli can produce accumulation of protein in the urine A urine condition in which the presence of albumin is in the urine, typically as a symptom of kidney disease.
azot/o Nitrogen
Azotemia "Excess nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream" Abnormally high levels of nitrogen-containing compounds (such as urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other compounds) in the blood. Indicated by elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test.
bacteri/o Bacteria
Bacteriuria "Condition of bacteria in urine" Usually a sign of a UTI.
Culture and Sensitivity Testing (C&S) Bacteria in urine are cultured (grown in a special nutrient environment) and then tested with antibiotics to determine which will inhibit growth.
dips/o Thirst
Polydipsia "Abnormal condition of great thirst." Commonly a sign of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. (Occurs with excessive urination, polyuria, signals the brain to cause thirst).
Polyuria Excessive urination. (as an effect)
kal/o Potassium
Hyperkalemia "Condition of abnormally high potassium in the blood" Major cause is chronic renal failure
ket/o, keton/o Ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
Ketosis "Abnormal condition of ketone bodies (acids and acetones) in the blood and body tissues." Metabolic state which is typically pathological in conditions such as diabetes, or from lack of carbs. AKA ketoacidosis, acid accumulating in blood & tissue
Acetone A ketone body released from the blood in the lungs and exhaled through the mouth and urine. ketone bodies that is formed when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy.
Ketonuria "Condition of ketones or acetones in urine" High levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown. Excretion of (abnormally large) amounts of ketone bodies in the urine.
lith/o Stone
Nephrolithiasis Condition of kidney stones. (renal calculi)
natr/o Sodium
Hyponatremia "Abnormally low sodium in blood level. " Usually occurs when water intake is too excessive (polydipsia)
noct/o Night
Nocturia Frequent, excessive urination at night.
olig/o Scanty/Small
Oliguria Abnormally small amounts of urination.
-poietin Substance that forms
Erythropoietin Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow. (Thus increases amt of oxygen to muscles, enhances athletic endurance).
py/o Pus
Pyuria "Pus in the urine" Turbid (cloudy) urine caused by the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and pus
-tripsy Crushing
Lithotripsy "Crush stones" Treatment to crush stones to make smaller to pass through, usually through ultrasound.
ur/o Urine (urea)
Uremia Raised level of blood in urine, toxic condition of excess urea (nitrogenous waste) Note -emia, not the same as hematuria
Enuresis Literally, a condition of being "in urine; bed-wetting"
Diuresis Increased or excessive production of urine.
Diuretics Induce (by drug) increased excretion of urine (diuresis)
Antidiuretic Hormone Hormone from the pituitary gland normally acts on the renal tubules to promote water reabsorption. AKA vasopressin, abbrevi. ADH
Vasopressin Hormone from the pituitary gland normally acts on the renal tubules to promote water reabsorption. AKA antidiuretic hormone, abbrevi. ADH
urin/o Urine
Urinary Incontinence "Inability to hold urine in the bladder" Loss of control of the passage of urine from the bladder. (Unable to hold in)
Stress Incontinence Occurs with strain on the bladder opening during coughing or sneezing
Urgency Incontinence Occurs with the inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void/urinate.
Urinary Retention "Inability to completely or partially empty the bladder." Symptom that results when the outflow of urine from the bladder is blocked.
-uria Urination; Urine Condition
Dysuria Painful urination
Anuria "No urination" Lack of urination from failure of kidneys producing urine. Commonly caused by renal failure or UT obstruction
Hematuria Blood in urine. (note -uria) Smoky-red color of urine
Microhematuria Hematuria that is visible only under a microscope, as opposed to gross hematuria.
Gross Hematuria Hematuria that can be seen with the naked eye.
Glycosuria "Condition of sugar in urine" sign of diabetes mellitus and a result of hyperglycemia Abnormally large level of sugar in the urine. A sign of diabetes mellitus
Urinalysis "An examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements" ...that may indicate various pathologic conditions.
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney. May be a complication followed by a streptococcal infection.
Interstitial Nephritis Inflammation of connective tissue (interstitium) that lies between the renal tubules.
Interstitial Cells In any organ and are found in addition to the essential, main functional cells. Refers to any cell lying inbetween other cells.
Parenchyma (in the kidney) Main functional cells, (in the kidney) consist of the glomeruli and the renal tubules (nephrons).
Nephrotic Syndrome (Nephrosis) "Group of symptoms (proteinuria, edema, hypoalbuminemia) that appears when the kidney is damaged by disease; also called nephrosis" Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine.
Edema "Swelling, fluid in tissues" caused by fluid in tissue spaces (sign of nephrotic syndrome)
Hypoalbuminemia Abnormally low level of albumin (a protein) in the blood. (sign of nephrotic syndrome)
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) form within and on the kidney.
Asymptomatic Without Symptoms
Pyelonephritis "Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma" Caused by bacteria infection
Parenchyma of an organ is its essential and distinctive tissue, main functional cells.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (hypernephroma) "Cancerous tumor (malignant) in the kidney in adulthood. " Accounts for 2% of all cancers in adults.
Renal Failure "Kidney doesn't excrete wastes" Decrease in excretion of wastes results from impaired filtration function. Acute (ARF) Chronic (CRF)
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) "Mild to severe kidney failure" Stages its severity by the level of creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ranging from normal (stage1) to end-stage RF (stage 5).
Renal Hypertension "High blood pressure caused by kidney disease. "
Secondary Hypertension "High blood pressure caused by kidney disease or another disease" or an abnormal condition such as glomerulonephritis.
Essential (or Primary) Hypertension Most common type of high blood pressure. There is no obvious underlying medical condition.
Wilms Tumpr "Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood." Treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Bladder Cancer "Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder."
Diabetes Insipidus (DI) "Inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone" Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not secreted, or there is a resistance of the kidney to ADH.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) "Inadequate secretion of insulin or improper utilization of insulin leads to this condition" or tissues are resistant to its effects.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) "High levels measured on this test lead to the suspicion of renal disease" Measurement of urea levels in the blood. Is normally BU level is low because urea is excreted in the urine continuously.
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Which normally is 90 to 120 mL/minute.
CT Urography X-Ray images obtained using computer tomography (CT) show multiple cross-sectional and other views of the kidney.
Kidneys, Ureters, and Bladder (KUB) X-ray Study X-Ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Demonstrates the size and location of the kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdominopelvic region.
Reanl Angiography X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney. Helps diagnose obstruction or constriction of blood vessels leading to the kidney.
Retrograde Pyelogram (RP) "Contrast is injected into the urinary bladder and ureters and x-ray pictures of the urinary tract are taken." X-ray image of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder.
Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) X-ray image (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding. *Reflux of contrast into the ureters is abnormal and may occur with recurrent UTIs.
Ultrasonography Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves. (Kidney size, tumors, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, &ureteral & bladder obstruction can be diagnosed)
Radioisotope Scan Image of the kidney obtained after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream.
Renal Scan Shows the size and shape of kidney in pictures.
Renogram Shows the functioning of the kidney. (Indicate narrowing of blood vessels, obstruction, and determine the individual functioning of each kidney.)
MRI Urography Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body.
Cystoscopy "Visualization of the urethra & urinary bladder with an endoscope" (cystoscope)
Flexible Cystoscopy A cystoscopy that Uses a thin fiberoptic cystoscope and is used for diagnosis and check ups of the urinary bladder.
Rigid Cystoscopy A cystoscopy that Uses a hollow metal tube, passed through the urethra and into the bladder and is used to take biopsy samples, remove polyps, or perform laser treatments.
Dialysis Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood. Used to treat acute or chronic renal failure & some cases of drug use. 2 Methods: Hemodialysis (HD) and Peritoneal dialysis (PD).
Hemodialysis (HD) "A machine removes nitrogenous wastes from the patient's blood" An artificial kidney machine receives waste filled blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it through artificial porous membrane (dialyzer)& returns the blood to the patient's body.
Arteriovenous Fistula Communication between an artery and a vein. Created surgically to provide easy access for hemodialysis.
Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Uses a catheter to introduce fluid into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity. Waste materials in the capillaries of the peritoneum pass out of the bloodstream and into the fluid, which is removed by catheter.
Extracorporeal Method (in lithotripsy) Uses shock waves directed toward the stone from the outside of the body. Patient receives light sedation or an anesthetic. Stones pass in urine after procedure. ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy)
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) "Dialysate (fluid) is injected into the peritoneal cavity and then drained out" from a plastic bag through a catheter into peritoneal cavity, empty bag is folded and inserted into clothes, after 4-8 hours the bag is unfolded and the fluid drains
Renal Angioplasty Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries. ...A balloon attached to a catheter is inserted into the artery and then inflated to enlarge the vessel diameter. Then stents may be inserted to keep vessel open. ..To treat renal hypertension.
Renal Biopsy Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination.
Renal Transplantation Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
Urinary Catheterization Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.
Foley Catheter An indwelling (left in the bladder) catheter held in place by a balloon inflated with liquid.
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone -- Vasopressin
AKI Acute Kidney (renal) Injury
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen
CAPD Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
CKD Chronic Kidney Disease -- a condition during which serum creatinine and BUN levels rise, which may result in impairment of all body systems.
Cl- Chloride -- an electrolyte excreted by the kidney
CrCl Creatinine Clearance
CRF Chronic Renal Failure -- Progressive loss of kidney function
C&S Culture & Sensitivity testing -- to determine antibiotic effectiveness against bacteria grown from a patient's urine specimen
Cysto Cystoscopic Examination
eGRF Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate
ESWL Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithtripsy
HCO3- Bicarbonate -- an electrolyte conserved by the kidney
HD Hemodialysis
IC Interstitial Cystitis -- chronic inflammation of the bladder wall; not caused by bacterial infection and not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy
IVP IntraVenous Pyelogram
K+ Potassium -- an electrolyte "This electrolyte is secreted by renal tubules into the urine"
PD Peritoneal Dialysis
pH Potential Hydrogen; scale to indicate degree of acidity or alkalinity urine test that reflects the acidity or alkalinity of urine
PKD Polycystic Kidney Disease
PUL Percutaneous Ultrasound Lithotripsy
RP Retrograde Pyelography
sp gr Specific Gravity
UA UrinAlysis
UTI Urinary Tract Infection
VCUG Voiding CystUrethroGram
5 stages of CKD Stage 1: eGFR >90 Stage 2: eGFR 60-90 Stage 3: eGFR 30-60 Stage 4: eGFR 15-30 Stage 5: eGFR <15
Types of UA Tests (11) Color, Appearance, pH, Protein, Glucose, Ketones, Bilirubin, Specific Gravity, Sediment, WBC, Phenylketonuria (PKU)
UA Color test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: Amber-yellow Abnormal: Smoky-red(blood in urine): renal calculi; tumor; kidney disease; cystitis; urinary obstruction
UA Appearance test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: Clear Abnormal: Cloudy (turbid) with pus (pyuria) and bacteria (bacteriuria) indicates UTI
UA pH test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: 4.6-8.0 Abnormal: Alkaline: UTI (8.5+)
UA Protein test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: None or small amount Abnormal: Albumin+, Proteinuria: nephritis; renal failure
UA Glucose test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: None Abnormal: Glycosuria: diabetes mellitus
UA Ketones test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: None Abnormal: Ketonuria: diabetes mellitus, Ketoacidosis
UA Bilirubin test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: None Abnormal: Bilirubinuria: hepatitis or gallbladder disease, liver disease
UA Specific Gravity test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: 1.003-1.030 Abnormal: High: renal calculi; diabetes mellitus Low: diabetes insipidus
UA Sediment and Casts test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: None Abnormal: Casts: nephritis; renal disease
UA WBC count test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: 0 Abnormal: High (>100)
UA Phenylketonuria (PKU) test: (normal and abnormal) Normal: Low levels Abnormal: "High levels of phenylalanin from the inability to break down that amino acid, results in mental retardation in infants."
Path of urine from bloodstream to leaving the body: Glomerulus > Glomerular Capsule > Renal Tubule>Renal Pelvis > Ureter > Urinary Bladder > Urethra > Urinary Meatus
Cystocele Hernia of the urinary bladder
Urethrostenosis "Narrowing (narrowed portion) of the urethra"
Sediment Abnormal particles present in the urine--cells, bacteria, casts, and crystals
Bilirubinuria Dark pigment that accumulates in urine as a result of liver or gallbladder disease
Specific Gravity Urine test that reflects the concentration of the urine
Abscess "Collection of pus"
Essential Hypertension "Idiopathic high blood pressure"
Stricture Narrowed area in a tube
Cystoscopic Examination "This endoscopic procedure is used to examine the interior of the urinary bladder"
Urinary Tract Infection "Bacterial invasion leads to this condition; acute cystitis is an example."
Nephrectomy "Excision of a kidney"
Ureteroileostomy "Incision of a ureter to remove a stone"
Created by: AbiNoel