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ch.6 medical terms

medical terms

osteoporsis literally means porous bones; that is, bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density
osteomalacia is a diease in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calicum and phosphorus
osteomyelitis is a local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood
ewing's sacroma is a maligant tumor of the bones common to young adults; particulary adolescent biys
osteogenic sacroma is a maligant tumor arising from bone,
ostechondroma is the most common benign bone tumor
paget's diease a nonmetabolic diease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction(breakdown of bone tissue by the osteoclasts) and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts
spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve oot canals. or intervertebral foramini(openings) of the lumbar spinal canal
talipes equinavares clubfoot; the infant's foot is fixed in plantar flexion(turned downward) and deviates medially(turned inward) and the heel is an elevated position
abnormal curature of the spine in this section we define three abnormal curvations of the spine
kyphosis is an abnormal outward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as humpback or hunchback
lordosis is an abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as swayback
scoliosis is an abnormal lateral(sideward) curvature of a portion of the spine
fracture is a broken bonel a sudden breaking of a bone
open reduction a fracture consists if realigining the bone under direct observation during surgery
internal fixation devices more commonly used with fractures of the femir and fractures of joints
closed fracture known as a simple fracture; there is a break in a bone but no open wound in the skin
open fracture knwon as a compund fracture; there is abreak in a bone, as well as an open wound in the skin
complete fracture is a break that extends through the entire thickness of the bone
greenstick fracture is an incomplete fracture
compression fracture is caused by bine surfaces being forced against each other, as in the compression of one vertebra against another
impacted fracture occurs when a direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone
hairline fracture also known as a stress fracture; is a minor fracture in which the bone contiunes to be in perfect alignment
pathological fracture occurs when a bone, which is weakend by a prexisting diease, breaks in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break
occult fracture is a fracture that cannot be detected by x-ray until several weeks after the injury (a "hidden fracture")
closed reduction of a fracture consists of aliging the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction, without making an incision into the skin
comminuted fracture occurs when the force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the one
colle's fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of connecting with the wrist bones
bone scan a bone scan involves the intravenous injection of a radioisotope, which is absorbed by bone tissue
bone marrow aspiration a bone marrow aspiration is the process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of ecaming the specimen under a microscope
anesthetized numbered; the aspiration needle is inserted through the skin down to the periosteum
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) is a noninvasive procedure thay measures bone density
DIP distal interphalangeal (joint)
DEXA dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
Fx fracture
PIP proximal interphalangeal
MTP metatarsophalangeal
MCP metacarpophalangeal
C1, C2, C3 cervical vertebra 1,2,2 etc.
L1, L2 L3 lumbar vertebra 1,2,3 etc.
S1 sacrum
T1, T1, T3 thoracic vertebra 1,2,3 etc.
THA total hip arthroplasty
THR total hip placement
TKA total knee arthroplasty
TKR total knee replacment
TMJ temporomandibular joint
Created by: Courtneey