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Unit 9

Industrial Revolution

TermDefinition
Edward Jenner Developed a vaccination for smallpox
Capitalism An economic system in which the government does not directly control the market, instead being driven by entrepreneurs and consumers & supply and demand
England Where the Industrial Revolution began thanks to its natural resources and the invention of the steam engine
Labor Unions Groups of workers demanding increased wages, improved working conditions, and workers' rights through lobbying and strikes
Factory Work Grueling, unsafe, unsanitary work which became the norm during the Industrial Revolution
Scramble for Africa After Europe's American colonies became independent, European nations turned to Africa for raw materials
Protectorates An independent country "protected" by another country
James Watt Developed the steam engine, which revolutionized travel over land and sea
James Hargreaves Invented the spinning jenny, which let to the creation of the textile industry
Henry Bessemer Created a process for cheaply and efficiently produce steel
Eli Whitney Created the cotton gin, which separates cotton fibers from their seeds
Louis Pasteur Discovered bacteria
Karl Marx Wrote The Communist Manifesto against the injustices of capitalism and for communism
Factory Towns Cities established by company owners where the companies workers would live -- the money earned by workers would be cycled back to the company and usually put the employees in debt
Zulu Wars A response of European imperialism in the African region of Zulu where the nation resisted colonization through numerous wars
Adam Smith Wrote The Wealth of Nations, which promoted free market ideas
Colonies Areas settled by a European mother country where the settlers recreate the institutions and societal structure of their homeland -- country loses independence
Boxer Rebellion A response of European imperialism in
Sphere of Influence A practice common in China where another nation has specific trading privileges and economically dominates and area -- country retains independence
Cottage Industry A small business run from home and usually by a family where items were handmade (diminished during/after the industrial revolution)
Women's Suffrage A movement fueled by women's desire to vote
Socialism and Communism Economic systems based on the idea of economic equality and against social classes in which the government redistributes wealth
Middle Class Certain workers who had an increased standard of living developed into a new economic class
Hindu Nationalism A response of European imperialism in India where their religious identity united the nation
Enclosure Movement Mechanized farming drove wealthy farmers to fence off farms to increase their size and production
Wealth of Nations A book written by Adam Smith which promoted the idea of a free market
The Communist Manifesto Written by Karl Marx expressing ideas against the injustices of capitalism and in favor of socialism/communism
Created by: FordSB21