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Order of draw 1. Blood Cultures2. Light Blue top tubes3. Serum or non-additive tube (Red or Red/Gray top tubes)4. Green top tubes5. Lavender top tubes6. Gray top tubes
BeCause BetterGoalsGeneratePerfectSpecimens Blood CulturesBlueGreenGrayPurple (Lavender)Serum (Red)
Order of draw for capillary specimens 1. Lavender tube 2. Tubes with other additives3. Tubes without additives
 Lavender top tube - Contains the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA inhibits coagulation by binding to calcium present in the specimen. The tubes must be filled at least two-thirds full and inverted eight times.
Common tests (for lavender): CBC (Complete Blood Count); Includes: RBC count, WBC count and Platelet count; WBC differential count; Hemoglobin and Hematocrit determinations; ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate); Sickle Cell Screening
 Red top tube - Also known as plain vacuum tube and contains no additive or anticoagulant. Collected blood clots by normal coagulation process in 30-60 minutes. There is no need to invert the tube after collection.
Common tests (for red): Serum chemistry tests; Serology tests; Blood bank (glass only)
Specimen Requirements  Patient’s full name and date of birth Patient’s hospital identification number (SSN for outpatients) Date and time of collection Medical assistant’s initials
Bacteriology the study of bacteria
Parasitology the study of parasites
Mycology the study of fungi
Virology the study of viruses
Anuria: The absence of urine
Hematuria: The presence of blood in urine
Polyuria: The passage of large volumes of urine
Proteinuria: The presence of excess proteins in urine
The routine urinalysis procedure is composed of three parts: a. physical examinationb. chemical examinationc. microscopic examination
Physical examination of urineThis consists of: 1. Assessing the volume of the urine specimen to determine if it 2. Is adequate for testing. 3. Observing the color and appearance ( or character ) of the 4. specimen. 5. Noting the odor. 6. Measuring the specific gravity.
This involves chemical evaluation of the contents of the urine which can be qualitative or quantitative. The chemical testing may involve examination of the following: vii. pHviii. Glucoseix. Ketonex. Proteinxi. Bloodxii. Bilirubinxiii. Urobilinogenxiv. Nitritexv. Leukocyte esterase
Waveform: refers to movement away from the isoelectric line either upward (positive) deflection or downward (negative) deflection.
Segment: line between two waveforms.
Interval: waveform plus a segment.
Complex: several waveforms.
P wave: the deflection produced by atrial depolarization. The normal P wave in standard, limb, and precordial leads does not exceed 0.11s in duration or 2.5mm in height.
QRS complex: represents ventricular depolarization (activation). The ventricle is depolarized from the endocardium to the myocardium, to the epicardium.
Q (q) wave: the initial negative deflection produced by ventricular depolarization.
R (r) wave: the first positive deflection produced by ventricular depolarization.
S (s) wave: the first negative deflection produced by the ventricular depolarization that follows the first positive deflection, (R) wave.
T wave: the deflection produced by ventricular repolarization.
U wave: the deflection seen following the T wave but preceding the next P wave.
RR interval: this is the interval between two R waves.P wave plus the PR segment. The normal interval is 0.12 – 0.2 sec.
QRS interval: represents ventricular depolarization time. It should be no more than 0.1 sec. in the limb leads and 0.11 sec. in the precordial leads.
PR segment: line from the end of the P wave to the onset of the QRS complex.
J (RST) junction: point at which QRS complex ends and ST segment begins.
ST segment: from J point to the onset of the T wave.
Created by: 100000150873358