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Unit 5-Agriculture

QuestionAnswer
purposely raising a crop or animal for human use agriculture
When people started deliberately raising plants or animals agricultural revolution
Preparing, planting, caring for, and harvesting a plant crop, cultivation
Modifying a plant or animal species through selective breeding so that it becomes dependent on humans. domestication
Where is the hearth for potatoes? Latin America
What are the major hearths for plant crops? Latin America, Southwest Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, Southeast Asia
Where is the hearth for wheat? Southwest Asia
Where is the hearth for rice? East Asia
Where is the hearth for coconuts? Southeast Asia
Where is the hearth of coffee? Sub-Saharan Africa
When people started to use machines in farming in the early 1800s that continued into the 20th century. Second Agricultural Revolution
Presents a range of choices in choosing which crops are better suited for the environment. Climate
Increases the availability of choices through machinery, irrigation, etc., and also shapes the style of agriculture. Wealth
Preferences based on customs, religion, social norms, etc. Culture
Three factors that cause the variation of Agriculture Climate, wealth, culture
A type of agriculture in which people herd domesticated animals by moving them from pastor to pastor pastoral nomadism
A type of culture in which people change the activity of one field to another to prevent the overuse of nutrients shifting cultivation
the act of preparing a field by clearing them and lighting on fire. slash and burn
A type of fields that are farmed for a small amount of time and left alone to restore nutrients and fertility. fallow fields
A type of agriculture that requires a large amount of work to produce a lot of food from a small amount of land. intensive subsistence
The act of planting and harvesting two crops in the same year on the same field. double cropping
A type of agriculture that is practiced in areas that are dryer intensive subsistence
A type of agriculture that grows one or two crops for commercial purposes. Often people are hired as laborers and owners are commercial contractors. plantation
The five major types of agriculture found in developing regions Pastoral nomadism, Shifting cultivation, Intensive subsistence, Intensive subsistence, Plantation
The six types of agriculture found in developed regions Mixed crop and livestock, Dairy farming, Commercial gardening and fruit farming, Grain farming, Mediterranean agriculture, Livestock ranching
The thesis that states as population grows, farmers are forced to adopt more intensive methods to meet the demands Boserup's thesis
Farmers need supplies such as fertilizer, machinery, productive seeds and pesticides to increase food production Balancing Food and Trade
To earn a sufficient amount of money farmers may send some family members to take jobs in the city to send money back, make crafts, or plant cash crops. Methods of Getting Cash
If there is more land spent to grow cash crops, there is less land for food crops to be grown on. the dilemma of growing cash and food crops
The act of producing more food than demand calls for. overproduction
Make foreign markets more available how to deal with overproduction
The black market, corruption, violence, and organized crime and drug-trafficking is a consequence of... drug crops being the best cash crop
This diagram dimistrates how the cost of land decrease the farther away one is from the market von Thunen model
The maximum distance a crop can be transported and still be sold to make a profit. transportation threshold
Occurred from the 1950s-to the 1980s; the invention and rapid diffusion of productive agricultural techniques such as plant hybridization and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Green Revolution
genetically modified organisms GMOs
Seeds are owned by the creator, farmers have to buy new seeds every year, and agribusiness Legal issues created by GMOs
Cheap food with a lot of mass consumption sustainability
Water pollution, use of antibiotics and hormones, and resource use Sustainability concerns
The township and range system Land Ordinance of 1785
1-square mile parcels sections
36 section square township
A survey system in which natural features are used to demarcate individual parcels of land. Creates an irregular pattern of land division metes and bound
Skinny, linear rectangles were the shape for land so water could be accessible to a lot of people long lot system
Created by: carmen.estupinan