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|purposely raising a crop or animal for human use
|When people started deliberately raising plants or animals
|Preparing, planting, caring for, and harvesting a plant crop,
|Modifying a plant or animal species through selective breeding so that it becomes dependent on humans.
|Where is the hearth for potatoes?
|What are the major hearths for plant crops?
|Latin America, Southwest Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, Southeast Asia
|Where is the hearth for wheat?
|Where is the hearth for rice?
|Where is the hearth for coconuts?
|Where is the hearth of coffee?
|When people started to use machines in farming in the early 1800s that continued into the 20th century.
|Second Agricultural Revolution
|Presents a range of choices in choosing which crops are better suited for the environment.
|Increases the availability of choices through machinery, irrigation, etc., and also shapes the style of agriculture.
|Preferences based on customs, religion, social norms, etc.
|Three factors that cause the variation of Agriculture
|Climate, wealth, culture
|A type of agriculture in which people herd domesticated animals by moving them from pastor to pastor
|A type of culture in which people change the activity of one field to another to prevent the overuse of nutrients
|the act of preparing a field by clearing them and lighting on fire.
|slash and burn
|A type of fields that are farmed for a small amount of time and left alone to restore nutrients and fertility.
|A type of agriculture that requires a large amount of work to produce a lot of food from a small amount of land.
|The act of planting and harvesting two crops in the same year on the same field.
|A type of agriculture that is practiced in areas that are dryer
|A type of agriculture that grows one or two crops for commercial purposes. Often people are hired as laborers and owners are commercial contractors.
|The five major types of agriculture found in developing regions
|Pastoral nomadism, Shifting cultivation, Intensive subsistence, Intensive subsistence, Plantation
|The six types of agriculture found in developed regions
|Mixed crop and livestock, Dairy farming, Commercial gardening and fruit farming, Grain farming, Mediterranean agriculture, Livestock ranching
|The thesis that states as population grows, farmers are forced to adopt more intensive methods to meet the demands
|Farmers need supplies such as fertilizer, machinery, productive seeds and pesticides to increase food production
|Balancing Food and Trade
|To earn a sufficient amount of money farmers may send some family members to take jobs in the city to send money back, make crafts, or plant cash crops.
|Methods of Getting Cash
|If there is more land spent to grow cash crops, there is less land for food crops to be grown on.
|the dilemma of growing cash and food crops
|The act of producing more food than demand calls for.
|Make foreign markets more available
|how to deal with overproduction
|The black market, corruption, violence, and organized crime and drug-trafficking is a consequence of...
|drug crops being the best cash crop
|This diagram dimistrates how the cost of land decrease the farther away one is from the market
|von Thunen model
|The maximum distance a crop can be transported and still be sold to make a profit.
|Occurred from the 1950s-to the 1980s; the invention and rapid diffusion of productive agricultural techniques such as plant hybridization and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
|genetically modified organisms
|Seeds are owned by the creator, farmers have to buy new seeds every year, and agribusiness
|Legal issues created by GMOs
|Cheap food with a lot of mass consumption
|Water pollution, use of antibiotics and hormones, and resource use
|The township and range system
|Land Ordinance of 1785
|1-square mile parcels
|36 section square
|A survey system in which natural features are used to demarcate individual parcels of land. Creates an irregular pattern of land division
|metes and bound
|Skinny, linear rectangles were the shape for land so water could be accessible to a lot of people
|long lot system