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Unit 7

Enlightenment and Revolutions

Absolute ruler A ruler who has largely unchecked power
Divine right Rule claimed by monarchies in which stated that God placed them on the throne and that they are only responsible to God not to nobles or to a church
King Louis XIV King of France of had the Palace of Versailles built for himself
Ivan the Terrible Ruler of Russia who reinforced the Orthodox Christian Church as the official Church of Russia
Peter the Great Monarch of Russia who engaged in a major campaign to modernize and westernize Russia
Charles I King of England who acted as an absolute monarch
King George III King of England who was an absolute monarch for the United States
The English Civil War Result of the Parliament revolting against the King
The Roundheads Forces of Parliament
The Cavaliers Forces of King Charles I
The Restoration of the Monarchy Parliament is unhappy with Cromwell’s rule in which causes them to invite King Charles II to retake the throne however, leads to the rule of absolute monarchy restoration under divine right
The Glorious Revolution Protestant daughter Mary II & her husband William take the throne and signs the English Bill of Rights creating a limited monarchy
The English Bill of Rights Document in which stated that the Parliament has greater power than the monarch and that the law is not based on social ranking or status, but by the courts rulings
Thomas Hobbes Defended the tradition of absolutism -Authored the book Leviathan -Claimed that individuals are selfish and focused on his/her own survival
The Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes in who who shocked about the execution of King Charles I
John Locke Supporter of Parliament who was against absolutism -Believed in natural laws existed in the state of nature
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke who believed that natural laws existed in the state of nature -Right to life, liberty, and property
Baron de Montesquieu Against absolute rule however, lived under the absolute rule of Louis the XIV of France -Proposed in the division of the government •Executive; Legislative; and Judiciary
In the Spirit of Laws Book written by Montesquieu -Advocated for the separation of powers
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Against absolute power and beloved that people were born naturally good and could govern themselves -“Power to the people”
The Social Contract Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau -Book states “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”
Voltaire Argued for the separation of Church and State -Believed that religious persecution led to religious conflict
The American Revolution Revolution that was inspired by the Declaration of Independence OUTCOME -Constitution includes separation of powers (Montesquieu) -Separation of Church and State (Voltaire) -Bill of Rights (Enlightenment)
The French Revolution Revolution that was inspired by many such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man, Third Estate, Enlightenment, and the overthrow of absolute monarch (King Louis XVI) OUTCOME -Separation of Church & State (Voltaire) -Conservative monarchy restored
The Storming of the Bastille When the 3rd Estate revolts against King Louis XVI in the name of equality
Louis XVI Absolute monarch who was executed due to individuals loss of belief in divine right and secularism
The Reign of Terror When the leader of the Jacobins, Maximilian Robespierre, begins to execute those that he assumed to be enemies of France
Maximilian Robespierre Leader of the Jacobins
Napoleon Emperor of France -“coup d’etat”
Napoleonic Code Created by Napoleon in order to establish a single uniform legal code for the entire French Empire
Created by: Gracia12