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Unit 7 Study Stack

Enlightenment and Revolutions

TermDefinition
Absolute Ruler A ruler who has largely unchecked power; all power was centralized in the monarch.
Divine Right Europeans rulers claiming that God had placed them on the throne, and as such, they were responsible only to God not to nobles.
King Louis XIV Absolute ruler that claimed he was the "State" or "The Sun King". Built the Palace of Versailles in France.
Ivan the Terrible Created the first secret police in Russia to hunt down and execute nobles who opposed his rule. Reinforced the Orthodox Christian Church as the official Church of Russia.
Peter the Great Modernized and westernized Russia by making a capital called St. Petersburg, "gateway to the West".
Charles I Absolute monarch trampling rights laid out in the Magna Carta as such as the right to trial by jury, and the right of Parliament to control the "purse".
King George III Absolute monarch for the U.S. He continuously pushed high tariffs on the Colonist to fund his kingdom and wars.
The English Civil War War between King Charles I and the Parliament, Charles I abused his power and Parliament revolted.
The Roundheads Forces of the Parliament
The Cavaliers Forces of King Charles I
The Restoration of the Monarchy Parliament was dissatisfied with Oliver Cromwell and decided to bring King Charles II to retake the English throne.
The Glorious Revolution Parliament invites James II's Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William to take the throne in his place.
The English Bill of Rights Mary & William sign the English Bill of Rights creating a "constitutional" or "limited" monarchy in which Parliament has more power over monarch.
Thomas Hobbes Believed that life in a "state of nature" is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Role of government is to control man.
The Leviathan To defend the tradition of absolutism-the absolute unquestioned rule of a king. Written by Hobbes.
John Locke Strong supporter of Parliament against absolutism. "Life, Liberty, and Property".
Two Treatises on Government Natural laws did exist in the state of nature. The role of the government was to protect the natural rights of the people. Written by Locke.
Baron de Montesquieu Lived under the rule of Louis XIV of France, Montesquieu believed absolute power was corrupted absolutely.
In the Spirit of Laws Separation of powers; government power had to be divided into checks and balances. Written by Montesquieu.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Believed people were born naturally good, and therefore, could govern themselves.
The Social Contract States that people are the "rulers" and they have no power except that which is given to them by the people themselves through vote. Written by Rousseau
Voltaire Concerned about the tradition of the two pillars of society being Church and State.
The American Revolution Great Britain against the Colonists, Thomas Jefferson was inspired by John Locke: "inalienable rights" of "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness".
The French Revolution Third Estate inspired by idea of equality, Declaration of the Right of Man inspired by John Locke and American Dec. of Independence.
The Storming of Bastille Commemorates the beginning of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI Louis serves as a "limited monarch" due to elected legislature for France.
The Reign of Terror Dissatisfaction with Legislative Assembly allows radicals to take over creating National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed.
Maximillian Robespierre Lead the Jacobins into the Reign of Terror after the execution of Louis XVI.
Napoleon Military leader during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleonic Code Rules inspired by the Enlightenment, which Napoleon implemented onto the French nation.
Created by: Moneem