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unit 7

enlightenment and revolutions

QuestionAnswer
Absolute ruler A ruler with unlimited power
Divine right Authority to rule given by God- king responsible only to God
King Louis XIV King of France who declared himself "The Sun King" and said "I am the State" built the Palace of Versailles to symbolize royal power
Ivan the Terrible King of Russia who ruled with brute force and had a private police to execute nobles who opposed his rule, restructured Russian society into nobles, peasants, and serfs
Peter the Great King of Russia who modernized/westernized Russia and built the capital St. Petersburg, a port city, as a gateway to the West
Charles I King of England who violated the Magna Carta and disbanded Parliament for 10 years which led to the English Civil War
King George III King of England who pushed high tariffs on colonists to fund his kingdom and wars
The English Civil War War between King Charles I and Parliament (Parliament won), led to the Enlightenment
The Roundheads New Model Army of Parliament during the English Civil War
The Cavaliers "knights" of the King during the English Civil War
The Restoration of the Monarchy After the fall of Cromwell's rule, Parliament restores the monarchy and invites Charles II to rule, his heir James II tries to rule with divine right and flaunts his Catholic faith
The Glorious Revolution Parliament invites James II's Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William to take the throne, the two sign the English Bill of Rights creating a constitutional monarchy
The English Bill of Rights Constitution signed by Mary and William that ensures Parliament has greater power than the monarch
Thomas Hobbes Enlightenment thinker who was pro-absolutism, believed government should protect people from their human nature- the "purge"
The Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes
John Locke Enlightenment thinker who believed government should protect peoples natural rights of "life, liberty, and property"
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke
Baron de Montesquieu French enlightenment thinker who believed government should be divided into 3 branches to provide checks and balances
In the Spirit of Laws Written by Baron de Montesquieu
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Enlightenment thinker who believed in direct democracy- that people should rule themselves
The Social Contract Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Voltaire Enlightenment thinker who believed in the separation of church and state- religious tolerance
The American Revolution Inspired by the Enlightenment, results in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights
The French Revolution Inspired by the Enlightenment, results in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and a liberal government ruled by Napoleon
The Storming of the Bastille Start of the French Revolution, the National Assembly (3rd Estate) revolts against King Louis XVI in the name of equality
Louis XVI King during the French Revolution who was executed by the National Convention created by the Jacobins
The Reign of Terror Led by the Jacobins and Robespierre, period of the French "Republic" where anti-revolutionists were executed by the guillotine
Maximilian Robespierre Leader of the Committee of Public Safety, executed during the Reign of Terror
Napoleon Overthrows the Directory (a powerless council) and secures France's borders becoming King of France
Napoleonic Code Legal code for the French Empire written by Napoleon
Created by: mytutorfriend