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Jaeger BT1.5

Biotech I History

What is biotechnology and what is the earliest use of a biotechnology process, still used today, can you identify? The use of microorganisms to produce chemical compounds or medical products. First use was fermentation of beer the Sumerians back in 1750 B.C.
What happened in the late 1600s that led to a much better understanding of bacteria? Who was responsible for this discovery? Anton Von Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria using the microscope
Who is the person who first “coined” the term biotechnology? Karl Ereky in 1919
When was the first large scale production of penicillin achieved and name at least 3 diseases penicillin is used to treat. 1943 was first large scale production; gonorrhea, strep throat, anthrax, tetnus, staph infections
What major milestone was achieved in 1953 and who is credited with this milestone? Watson and Crick reveal the 3D structure of DNA
What did Marshall Nirenburg work on for 5 years and why is it important to the history of biotechnology? 1961 – 1966 mRNA studied, discovered UUU is the condon for phenylalanine which led to the discovery of the gentic code and its components
When was the North Carolina Biotechnology Center created and what was is its purpose? 1981, first state sponsored initiative to develop biotech industry
What did Genentech produce in 1978 from E. coli? Human insulin in 1978. Humulin in 1982 to treat diabetes.
In 1980 the US Supreme Court ruled on a landmark case Diamond v. Chakrabarty. What was decided by this case? Approval of principle of patenting genetically engineered life forms
In what year was the first DNA fingerprinting technique developed? 1984
What does PCR stand for? In what year was the method first conceived? In year was the procedure first published? Polymerase Chain Reaction. 1983 was the first method and 1988 was the first published method
In 1991 a biotech company, Amgen, developed Neupogen. What was the significance of this discovery? Record the website for later on. First new class of drugs called colony stimulating factors, used for the treatment of low white blood cells in chemotherapy patients
What milestone was achieved by Genzyme in 1991? Name the product and the disease it treats. Record the website for use later on. Ceredase approved. Treatment for Gaucher’s patients. Cerezyme is the recombinant form.
In what year was the first baboon to human bone marrow transplant performed? What disease did the patient have? 1995 it was performed on an AIDS patient
Biogen, located in Cambridge, MA and RTP, NC, produced Avonex. What disease is this a treatment for? Treatment for Multiple sclerosis
Dolly came on the biotech scene in 1997. How was she significant? First cloned sheep from adult cell
In what year did bio-defense become particularly important to a point where federal funds were approved to support research and development efforts? What specific incidence led to this? 2001 after 9/11 and Anthrax was sent through the mail.
What major milestone was completed in April 2003? National Human Genome Project completed. Full human genome sequence completed
Bioremediation use of bacteria to clean up the environment
Biosensors use of microelectronics and cellular biology to create new devices; ex. insulin monitor
Protein Engineering Abzyme production; making a better and more robust Ab through recombinant engineering
Bio-processing using bacteria to mfg. new products; example is fermentation
Genetic engineering also called recombinant DNA
Lipids Sudan IV is the test, composed of fatty acids
Proteins Biuret reagent, violet is positive, composed of amino acids
Complex sugars Iodine is the test, black is positive, starches are in this area
Simple sugars Carbs, Benedicts reagent, orange is positive reaction
Nucleic acids contains genetic information
Created by: kjaeger