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absolute monarchy one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs
armada a Spanish naval invasion force sent against England by Philip II of Spain in 1588. It was defeated by the English fleet and almost completely destroyed by storms off the Hebrides.
intendant a title given to a high-ranking official or administrator, especially in France, Spain, Portugal, or one of their colonies.
divine right God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
balance of power the power held by a small group when larger groups are of equal strength.
lev'ee an embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river.
elector 1. a person who has the right to vote in an election. 2. a German prince entitled to take part in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor.
mercenary a professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army.
westernization a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, .
boyar a member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in rank to a prince.
autocratic a ruler who has absolute power.
partition (especially with reference to a country with separate areas of government) the action or state of dividing or being divided into parts.
dissenter use, occupy, or enjoy (something) jointly with another or others.
limited monarchy Government. restricted with reference to governing powers by limitations prescribed in laws and in a constitution
constitutional government a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the polity—that effectively controls the exercise of political power.
cabinet a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
prime minister the head of an elected government; the principal minister of a sovereign or state.
natural law a body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct.
social contract an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection.
natural rights Every person was given life, liberty, and property to preserve mankind.
philosopher a person engaged or learned in philosophy, especially as an academic discipline
laissez faire a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering.
free market an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses.
censorship the suppression or prohibition of any parts of books, films, news, etc. that are considered obscene, politically unacceptable, or a threat to security.
salon a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held partly to amuse one another and partly to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation.
baroque relating to or denoting a style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail. Example: Palace of Versailles
popular sovereignty the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
checks and balances counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
estates a piece of landed property
bourgeoisie the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.
deficit spending government spending, in excess of revenue, of funds raised by borrowing rather than from taxation.
faction a small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one, especially in politics.
suffrage the right to vote in political elections.
guillotine a machine with a heavy blade sliding vertically in grooves, used for beheading people.
plebiscite the direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
annex add (territory) to one's own territory by appropriation.
abdicate renounce (abandon) the throne.
guerrilla warfare a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
legitimacy conformity to the law or to rules.
Created by: adinabuice