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Unit 7

Enlightenment and Revolution

TermDefinition
Absolute Ruler A monarch with largely unchecked and centralized power
Divine Right The idea that claims God placed a ruler on the throne
King Louis XIV A French king who built the Palace of Versailles, claimed "I am the State," and called himself "The Sun King"
Ivan the Terrible A Russian Tsar who ruled through brute force and restructured Russian society into sectors of nobility, peasants, and serfs (slaves)
Peter the Great A Russian Tsar who sought to westernize and modernize Russia, majorly through replicating French culture (language, fashion, etc.)
Charles I An English King who triggered the English Civil War by violating the Magna Carta and going to war with Parliament
King George III An English King who ruled during the time of the American Revolutionary War
The English Civil War A war in England caused by King Charles I violating the Magna Carta, which eventually led to a war between the King and Parliament
The Roundheads The army of Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War (later The New Model Army)
The Cavaliers The army of King Charles I during the English Civil War
The Restoration of the Monarchy Parliament invites Charles II to retake the throne after the Commonwealth
The Glorious Revolution James II's daughter Mary II and her husband William are offered the throne in place of James II and the two sign the English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights Established a constitutional/limited monarchy in England, signed by Mary II and William
Thomas Hobbes Supported absolute rule and believed human beings needed absolute faith in their government to protect them from anything and everything
The Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes
John Locke Against absolute rule and instead believed in natural rights (Life, Liberty, and Property)
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke
Baron von Montesquieu Against absolute rule and believed in the separation of governmental power into three branches with checks and balances
In the Spirit of Laws Written by Montesquieu
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Against absolute rule and believed in direct democracy (equal representation of all through voting)
The Social Contract Written by Rousseau
Voltaire Against absolute rule and believed in a separation of Church and State
The American Revolution The English colonies in America revolted against King George III and declared their independence
The French Revolution The revolt of the 3rd Estate of France against King Louis XVI
The Storming of the Bastille The instigating event of the French Revolution/people of the 3rd Estate raid a prison/armory
Louis XVI The French King during the beginning of the French Revolution whose execution was followed by the Reign of Terror
The Reign of Terror Robespierre and the National Convention conduct the trials and executions of thousands under paranoia of traitors during the Franco-Austrian War
Maximillian Robespierre Puppeteer of the Reign of Terror and leader of the Jacobins
Napoleon A military leader of France who overtook the kingdom as its emperor and established the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code Established a uniform code for the French Empire
Created by: FordSB21