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The Age of Monarchs

The Age of Absolution Chapter 4

TermDefinition
Hapsburg Empire Central European empire that lasted from the 1400s to the 1900s and had at its height included the lands of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands.
Charles V Was ruler of both the Spanish Empire as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire as Charles V from 1519,
Philip II called "the Prudent", was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland
Absolute Monacrh ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs.
Divine Right belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God.
Armada fleet of ships
El Greco was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance
Huguenots French Protestants
Henry IV known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon
Edict of Nantes Granted religious tolerance to French Protestants
Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII's chief minister
Louis XIV known as Louis the God-Given, Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Intendant royal officials who collected taxes in France
Jean Baptise Colbert Louis' fiance minster
Versailles The immense palace Louis XIV built to showcase is power
Balance of Power to maintain power between European states; through military and economic treaties
James I the first Stuart monarch, who repeatedly clashed with Parliament
dissenters Protestants who differed with the Church of England
Puritans a group of dissenters who sought to “purify” the church of Catholic practices
Charles I a Stuart monarch who inherited the throne in 1625 and dissolved Parliament, and then fought the English Civil War against it
Oliver Cromwell leader of the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War, who went on to lead the short-lived Commonwealth between 1649 and 1658
English Bill of Rights several acts of Parliament that limited the power of the monarchy and restated the rights of English citizens
limited monarchy a monarchy that rules in partnership with Parliament or another governing body
constitutional government a government whose power is defined and limited by law
cabinet parliamentary advisors to the king who in time gained official status
oligarchy a government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people
elector title of each of the seven leading German princes who chose the Holy Roman emperor in the seventeenth century
Ferdinand the Catholic Hapsburg king of Bohemia
mercenary a soldier for hire
depopulation reduction in population
Peace of Westphalia a series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years’ War
Maria Theresa daughter of Charles VI, who succeeded him and ruled Hapsburg lands during the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession an eight-year war that broke out when Frederick of Prussia seized the Hapsburg province of Silesia
Prussia a strong military state that emerged in central Europe in the late 1600s
Frederick William I a Prussian ruler who came to power in 1713 and gained the loyalty of the Prussian nobles to increase his control of the state
Frederick II the son of Frederick William, who became king of Prussia in 1740 and seized Silesia from Austria, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession
Peter the Great a Russian tsar who took control of government in 1689 and used his power to modernize Russia
westernization the adoption of Western ideas, technology, and culture
autocratic ruling with unlimited authority
boyar a landowning noble
warm-water port a port that is free of ice all year
St. Petersburg capital city and major port that Peter the Great established in 1703
Catherine the Great Russian empress as of 1762 who embraced Western ideas and ruled as an absolute monarch
partition divide up
How did Philip II extend Spain's power and help establish a golden age? Philip II asserted absolute power, waged war, and supported the arts, all to extend Spain's power and prestige.
Why did Spain's power and prosperity decline? Costly wars, inflation, bad economic choices, and faulty leadership caused Spain's decline.
How did France become the leading power of Europe under the absolute rule of Louis XIV? Louis XIV strengthened royal power, the army, the economy, and the arts to make France a leader in Europe.
What was the purpose of Louis Xiv's extravagant palace and daily rituals? The rituals kept nobles busy, instead of allowing them time to jockey for power. The Palace served to showcase the King's might.
How did the British parliament assert its rights against royal claims to absolute power in the 1600s? By attempting to share power with the monarchs, by waging a civil war and creating the Commonwealth, and also creating the Bill of Rights.
How did the Stuarts differ from the Tudors in their approach to Parliament? The Tudors worked with Parliament, while the Stuarts opposed Parliament.
How did the two great empires of Austria and Prussia emerge from the Thirty Years' War subsequent events? After war decimated the Holy Roman Empire, strong rulers such as Maria Theresea, Frederick William, and Frederick II consolidated power and territory to build their empires.
What two powers emerged in Europe at the end of the Thirty Years' War? How were the goals of these nations similar? Austria and Prussia; both sought to increase their political, economic, and military power in Europe.
Identify the three goals of Peter the Great and what was one step that he undertook to achieve each goal? Goal 1: To Westernize Russia; Bring the church under his control. Goal 2: Strengthen Military; Force boyars to serve in the military. Goal 3: Expand Russian Border; Build military power
Created by: Denmark12