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autocrat a ruler who has absolute power.
medieval describes Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 CE and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century
feudalism the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, vassals were tenants of the nobles, while the peasants had to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, in exchange for military protection.
vassal a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance.
fief an estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service.
knight a man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.
peasant a poor farmer of low social status who rents a small piece of land for cultivation
tournament a sporting event in which two knights (or two groups of knights) jousted on horseback with blunted weapons, each trying to knock the other off, the winner receiving a prize.
chivalry the combination of qualities expected of an ideal knight, especially courage, honor, courtesy, justice, and a readiness to help the weak.
troubadour a French medieval lyric poet composing and singing in Proven├žal in the 11th to 13th centuries, especially on the theme of courtly love.
manor system the peasants of medieval Europe were rendered dependent on their land and on their lord.
manor a large country house with lands; the principal house of a landed estate
serf an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
feudal contract a contract between a villein (villager) and the lord that stated what each person needed to do and what each person could expect from the other.
sacrament a religious ceremony or act of the Christian Church that is regarded as an outward and visible sign of inward and spiritual divine grace, in particular.
secular activities or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
papal supremacy Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the Pope, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered
Pope the bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church.
canon law ecclesiastical law, especially (in the Roman Catholic Church) that laid down by papal pronouncements.
excommunication the action of officially excluding someone from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church.
interdict (in the Roman Catholic Church) a sentence barring a person, or especially a place, from ecclesiastical functions and privileges.
friar a member of any of certain religious orders of men, especially the four mendicant orders (Augustinians, Carmelites, Dominicans, and Franciscans).
icon a painting of Jesus Christ or another holy figure, typically in a traditional style on wood, venerated and used as an aid to devotion in the Byzantine and other Eastern Churches.
usury the illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest.
schism a split or division between strongly opposed sections or parties, caused by differences in opinion or belief.
charter a written grant by a country's legislative or sovereign power, by which an institution such as a company, college, or city is created and its rights and privileges defined.
capital the most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative center.
partnership an association of two or more people as partners.
tenant farmer a person who farms rented land.
guild a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power.
apprentice a person who is learning a trade from a skilled employer, having agreed to work for a fixed period at low wages.
journeyman a trained worker who is employed by someone else.
common law the part of English law that is derived from custom and judicial precedent rather than statutes. Often contrasted with statutory law.
habeas corpus a writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.
due process of law fair treatment through the normal judicial system
lay investiture the most conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.
epidemic a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
Created by: adinabuice