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Reformation religious revolt against authority and doctrines of the Catholic church
What did Reformation do? Western Europe - it shattered Catholic religous unity and led to Christian diversity
Political Causes of Reformation rulers resented the church's courts and supremacy over civil authority. The Pope considered a foreign ruler unless you lived in Italy.
Economic Causes of Reformation Rulers envied the Church's wealth, tithe was a heavy burden
Intellectual Causes of the Reformation Renaissance contributed to Reformation; educators doubted church religious power and authority
Church Abuses: worldliness, nepotism, simony, indulgences
Early Reform Attempts Wycliffe (1328-1384)
Wycliffe English priest - condemned the wealth and worldliness of the church
Wycliffe believed.... the Bible was the highest authority
Wycliffe translated Bible into English - people would guide themselves in religious matters
Wycliffe denounced... the Pope, condemned heresy, and persecuted
JOHN HUS (1369-1415) Early Reform attempt * Czech leader who advanced Wycliffe's ideas * Believed Christians should be able to read the Bible in their own language * Questioned church's immorality and worldliness * Excommunicated, arrested, and tried as a heretic * Burned at the stake
ERASMUS (1466-1536) Early Reform Attempt *Dutch humanist * Attacked Church abuses * Remained a faithful Catholic Pleas for reform went unheard
Martin Luther * Law student at Erfurt * Afterlife was important and always questioned * Religious experience * German monk and professor of theology - University of Wittenburg
1517 * Purgatory * St. Peter's Basilica * John Tetzel - German priest * Offers indulgences to any Christian who can contribute money to rebuild the cathedral in Rome * Purchases would assure early entry into Heaven for them and their dead relatives
Luther Attacks the church * Condemns the sale of indulgences * 95 Theses - argument against indulgences and statement of his beliefs/ nailed to the door of Wittenberg's All Saints church
Luther Attacks the church * Copies are printed and distributed across Europe * Faith alone ensures salvation not good deenot good deeds(justification by faith Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages and permitted clergy to marry * 1521 - Excommunicated by Pope Leo X
Other Protest Reformers Ulrich Zwingli John Calvin John Knox
Ulrich Zwingli Swiss priest taught that the Bible is the supreme religious authority - not the Pope
John Calvin * French reformer who fled from France to Geneva, Switzerland *Leading Protestant spokesman * taught predestination - only the elect by God would achieve salvation * Calvinisim would spread rapidly
John Knox Scottish reformer and follower of Calvin *Established Presbyterianism - official religion of Scotland
Luther's Reforms gain support Printing press spread his writings throughout Germany * German rulers/Princes welcomed revolt against Rome- weaken the Holy Roman Emperor *Accepted his ideas based on a new religion - Lutheranism
Luther Wrote catechisms and hymns "A Mighty Fortress is Our God"
Lutheranism Spreads to Scandinavia, Norway, Sweden, Denmark converted to Lutheranism and established it as a state religion
Diet of Worms Charles V - summons Luther to the diet (assembly) * Luther was expecting to defend his writings * instead, ordered to give them up - Luther refused * Charles declared Luther an outlaw - it was a crime to give him food or shelter
Frederick the Wise Translates Greek NT into German
Anglicanism in England 1527 Henry VIII:
Henry VIII * Once a good Catholic * writes a document against Luther defending Catholic church * Marries into the Hapsburg gamily - devout Catholics
Catherine of Aragon Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter/Charles V Aunt * Loved by the people of England; submissive Problem: could not bare a son(6 pregnancies)
Mary: only surviving child and English had never accepted a female monarch
Henry VIII believes dynasty is in trouble Asks for an Annulment/Canon law God's judgment married to Henry's brother who died
Mary Renounce her title as Queen(married for 24 years)
Act of Supremacy 1534 Pope says NO! Henry - Can't stop me Parliament issues Act of Supremacy Henry is declared head of church of England Dissolves all Catholic monasteries and sells the land - $$
Anne Boleyn Secret mistress of Henry VIII whom he marries in 1533 (Still married to C. Aragon) *not liked by the people of England *Manipulataive - gives birth to Elizabeth(future Queen of England) *Henry becomes disinterested-not producing male heir
Anne Boleyn *Lady in waiting - Jane Seymour Accused of adultery , treason, and incest by Henry and is beheaded
Jane Seymour Henry VIII's favorite weds Jane 24 hours after Anne's execution(met her while visiting the Seymour home) Gives birth to a son - Edward VI- dies 9 days later Liked by the people Not well-educated, but fairest and most discreet of all his wives
Jane Seymour Henry wears black for 3 months and doesn't marry for 3 years Only spouse buried with him in same tomb
Anne of Cleves German princess "ugly wife" Sent a painter to paint her portrait before he married her "I like her, I like her not..."/n Divorced after 6 months Declared his sister so she could gain $$ each year, several manors and palaces, and did not have to retur
Catherine Howard Lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves FLirty, silly, graceful, charming Never crowned Queen of England - wanted to make sure she could conceive a son Involved in numerous affairs Henry had her arrested - executed
Catherine Parr Her 3rd marriage/ his 6th 20 years younger than Henry/widowed 2 times Amazing stepmother to Mary, Edward, and Elizabeth She encouraged Elizabeth I's education Loved to debate theology, learned Greek and Latin
Catherine Parr King's health declines in 1546 and he dies in 1547 She dies from childbirth at the age of 35
Counter Reformation Effective leadership Council of Trent 1545-1563 Holy Inquisition Society of Jesus
Results of Reformation End of religious unity Catholic: Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, Austria, Poland, Hungary Protestant: England, Scotland, Wales, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland
Results of Reformation Strengthened Civil Authorities State gained power Confiscated church properties Abolished Catholic courts Assumed control over new Protestant churches
Results of Reformation Religious Wars: Civil War i n Germany Civil Ward in France Spanish Naval War against England(1588) 30 years war (1618-1648) 4 phases-Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, French Gustavus Adolphus -"Swedish Swords, French Funds"
Created by: tinamyers
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