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PASS Review

7th Grade PASS Review

Mercantilism The belief that a country builds up its power by building up its supply of gold and silver. If a country could not obtain gold and silver in colonies, it used the natural resources to create goods to trade for gold.
Exploration Technology Compass: indicates direction
Astrolabe determines Latitude
Gunpowder Protection
Direct Rule European countries sent their own citizens to govern colonies
Indirect Rule European countries allowed natives of the colony to govern the colony under the direction of the European country
Plantation Colony A colony established to grow cash crops such as sugar, tobacco and indigo. Britain set these up in North American south and Spain and Portugal created in islands
Settler Colony Large numbers of people come to the colonies to live in the colony and establish a permanent presence. Britain established these including Jamestown
Trading Post Colony Colony established to support trade between the mother country and the region. The French and Dutch created these in North America. Portugal was the first to create these in Asia
Middle Passage Part of Atlantic Slave Trade/Triangular Trade between Africa to the New World carrying slaves
Triangular Trade Atlantic Slave Trade between Africa, Americas and Europe. Americas sent natural resources to Europe who made and trade goods to Africa who traded slaves
Capitalism An economic system where individuals own and invest their money in businesses with the goal of making a profit
Laissez-Faire Economics Economic system based on private ownership of resources and production that is driven by profit. People make the decisions.
Market Where goods and services are sold to consumers. European countries colonized to increase their market for goods. Colonies had to trade with mother country
Natural Resource Things found in nature that can be used by people; water to drink, run first factories; coal to run steam engines, etc.
Favorable Balance of Trade Occurs when a country exports/sells more goods to other countries than it imports/buys from other countries
Limited Government Restraints are placed upon the power and authority of a government. Example, a negative constitution states what the government can not do
Unlimited Government No restraints are placed on the authority of the government. Individual rights are curbed. Includes tyranny, totalitarian and authoritarian
Totalitarian Government Government with one ruler, one legal party, few rights (if any) for the people; often uses terror to control the people
Constitution Written or unwritten, sets up the structure of government, gives people rights. Positive says what government can do; negative says what government can't do
Glorious Revolution Bloodless revolution in England to end Catholic monarchy; William and Mary signed English Bill of Rights beginning constitutional monarchy
English Bill of Rights Document signed by William and Mary; limited the power of the monarchy and gave the people rights, creating constitutional monarchy in England.
Enlightenment Intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th Centuries; applied reason to the human condition.
Social Contract Theory Enlightenment idea that government was created as an agreement between social groups as a way of structuring themselves in a mutually beneficial way
Separation of Powers Supported by Montesquieu and included in the US Constitution; divides government into three branches so no one person or group has all the power
Scientific Revolution During the 1500s and 1600s, advances made in science and math; challenged authority of the Church when heliocentric theory discovered.
Heliocentric Model Created by Copernicus; sun is the center of the Universe; challenged the Church's belief in the geocentric theory (earth is the center)
Unequal Tax Burden When one group has to pay an unfair portion of the taxes; in the French Revolution the 3rd Estate paid most of the taxes while the clergy and nobles had most of the wealth
Tennis Court Oath When the Estates General would not agree to one-man-one vote, giving the 3rd Estate more power, the 3rd Estate left and vowed not to leave the tennis court until a new constitution was written for France
Storming of the Bastille Beginning of the French Revolution
Congress of Vienna After Napoleon was defeated, European countries met to reorganize Europe and create new countries
Industrial Revolution Movement of the work force from in-home, hand-made production of goods to mass production of identical items using machines in factories
Enclosure Movement Law in England that allowed land owners to fence in and create large farms forcing small farmers off the land and into the cities; created a surplus of food; made workers available for factory jobs
Rural-to-Urban Migration People moved from the country where they farmed to the city to find factory jobs. Early factories were built in existing cities near water sources
Factors of Production Conditions needed to successfully create products: natural resources, land (near a water source before steam engine), labor and capital
Meiji Restoration Restoration of the Meiji Dynasty to the throne in Japan; beginning of industrialization in Japan; improved transportation, education and communication
Assembly Line/Division of Labor A line of workstations in which workers do one specific job to create a product as the product is moved down the line
Interchangeable Parts Identical parts that can be substituted one for the other instead of being hand-made; reduced cost; allowed for mass production; developed by Eli Whitney
Union Organization joining workers together to negotiate with factory owners; most powerful weapon is the strike (workers don't go to work)
Cottage Industry Business in the home where goods were hand-made prior to the industrial revolution
Nationalism Extreme pride in one's country; desire for self-determination based on culture; cause of many revolutions and dependence movements
Imperialism A stronger, usually developed or industrialized country, takes over the economy and government of a weaker country
Feudalism A system of land ownership where all the land was divided by the king and given to nobles, serfs has no means of making money. Ended when trade increased, artisans and merchants began
Social Darwinism During Age of Imperialism, belief the Western Society (white Europeans) were better than Africans and Asians
Scramble for Africa Competition between European countries to imperialize/claim land and its natural resources in Africa
Monroe Doctrine Stated that North and South America (land in the Western Hemisphere) were off limits to further European expansion/colonization
Spanish-American War US assisted Cuba in fight for independence from Spain; began when US said Spanish mine blew up the USS Maine; US wanted to protect economic interests in Cuba
Yellow Journalism Newspapers use sensational and competitive headlines to gain readers; encouraged Americans to support the Spanish-American War
Roosevelt Corollary Added to the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the US would be an international police power in the Western Hemisphere to prevent Europe from taking advantage of countries
Zulu War War in African between the British and the Zulu during which the British gained Zulu land
Sepoy Rebellion Indian troops rebelled against British rulers due to the use of pig and cow grease on cartridges, which went against their Hindu and Muslim beliefs; Indians lost
Boxer Rebellion The Society of the Harmonious Fists tried to rid China of foreign influence by killing Christians and foreigners; lost and China lost more land to foreigners
Isolationism Idea that the United States would isolate itself and would not be involved in world issues in an attempt to stay out of European wars such as WWI and II
Constitutional Monarchy A monarchy under which kings and queens rule under the limits of the basic law; began in England after Glorious Revolution and in France after Tennis Court Oath
Russo-Japanese War War between Russia and Japan over Korea and Manchuria (for natural resources); Japan won
Militarism Policy of building up a strong military force; increasing weapons and troops; cause of WWI
Alliance Agreement between nations to aid and protect each other: Cause of WWI; increased likelihood of world war because all allied countries would have to join in one country were attacked/invaded
Mechanization of War Creating mass produced weapons in factories; mechanical weapons in WWI, such as the machine gun, led to increased loss of life
Triple Alliance Alliance prior to WWI; included Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary
Triple Entente Alliance prior to WWI; included France, Great Britain and Russia
Allied Powers Alliance between Britain, France and Russia, with the US and Italy joining later during WWI
Central Powers Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire during WWI
Russian Revolution Russians overthrew Czar Nicholas II due to high taxes, poor working conditions and lack of political expression
Bolshevik Revolution Revolt by the working class following the Russian Revolution; Lenin came to power; Russia became the USSR/Soviet Union and communist; Russia pulled out of World War I
World War I The Great War, began when Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary throne was assassinated in Bosnia; The Allied Powers won and Germany signed the war guilt clause
Communism Economic and political system in which the government owns all of the factors of production and the people share equally in the profits
Socialism Economic system in which basic industries are owned by all of the people and all of the people share in the profits according to need; created by Karl Marx
Zimmerman Telegram/Note Telegram in which Germany encouraged Mexico to attack US to get back land in an effort to keep US out of World War I; partial reason US entered WWI
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare German use of U-boats to sink any ships, including merchant and passenger, during WWI. When Germany broke the Sussex Pledge to stop, US entered war
Treaty of Versailles Treaty that ended WWI; Germany signed war guilt clause/had to pay reparations; empires split up; created League of Nations
Fourteen Points US President Wilson's plan after WWI to create lasting peace; did not want to punish Germany; wanted League of Nations
League of Nations Created by Treaty of Versailles to maintain peace; failed due to no military or money and the US did not join
Great Depression Worldwide economic downturn; high inflation and unemployment
Fascism Totalitarian government created in both Italy and Germany after WWI; allowed for private property and businesses and social classes but few personal freedoms
Appeasement Policy of Great Britain and France to give in to Hitler's demands prior to WWII to prevent war; did not work
Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Agreement between Germany and Soviet Union that they would not invade each other and would split Poland prior to WWII; Germany broke pact during WWII and was defeated
Suez Canal Manmade channel connecting Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea; allowed access to Middle East oil and aided trade so that Europeans could reach Asia without going around Africa
Pearl Harbor Japanese attack on US base in Hawaii due to US oil embargo placed on Japan; brought US into WWII; US defeated Japan
World War II World war between Axis and Allied Powers; began when Hitler went against the Munich Pact and broke the Treaty of Versailles by invading Poland
Island Hopping US policy in the WWII Pacific Theory to take each island individually until the US was close enough to attack Japan
Neutrality Acts US laws attempting to keep US out of future wars after WWI; US would not sell weapons to countries at war and restricted American travel on foreign ships
Holocaust The systematic mass murder of Jews and many other groups by Nazis during World War II; Final Solution=concentration camps
Nuremberg Laws Discriminatory laws that denied German citizenship to Jews, forbid Jews to marry Germans and prohibited Jews from public parks and gaining an advanced education
Yalta Conference Prior to the end of WWII, the US, Great Britain and the Soviet Union met to plan the re-organization of Europe; included the division of Germany into East and West
Truman Doctrine US foreign policy based on the containment of communism by giving economic assistance (money) to countries so that they could resist communism
Marshall Plan US Provided economic assistance (money) to Western Europe after WWII to rebuild so that they would be economically strong enough to resist communist take-over
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization-military alliance during Cold War between the US, Canada and Western European countries; would help each other if the Soviet Union invaded
Warsaw Pact Military alliance during the Cold War between Communist countries in response to NATO; communist countries would aid each other in the event of invasion
European Economic Community EEC; Cooperation between Western European nations to promote free trade and strengthen economies; no tariffs/taxes on imports sold to member nations
Iron Curtain Term created by Winston Churchill; line between communist Eastern Europe and democratic Western Europe
Korean War Hot extension of Cold war between Soviet-backed North Korea and US-backed South Korea; North invaded South; was pushed back to the 38th Parallel
38th Parallel Dividing line between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea
Domino Theory US belief that if one Asian country fell to communism, all Asian countries would become communist; reason US continued to fight Vietnam War after France gave up fight to reclaim colony of Indochina
Vietnam War Hot extension of Cold War between Ho Chi Minh-led Communist North Vietnam and South Vietnam; began when French tried to reclaim Indochina colony; French pulled out but US continued to fight
Great Leap Forward Mao's efforts to collectivize farms and industrialize communist China; huge failure, mass starvation and inferior products created
Cultural Revolution Mao's efforts to create a "pure" Communist China; Red Guards persecuted people they believed were counterrevolutionaries; universities closed
17th Parallel The DMZ-Demilitarized zone separating North and South Vietnam after the French ended war. War continued when US encouraged South Vietnam not to hold elections due to fear of communist win
Axis Powers Alliance during World War II between Germany, Italy and Japan; Axis Powers lost when both Germany and Japan surrendered unconditionally
Zionism Strong desire for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Mandate System After World War I, the League of Nations governed territories in the Middle East but allowed member nations to run them; Palestine was a British mandate
Camp David Accords In 1979, Egypt agreed to recognize Israel as a country and
Oslo Peace Accords In 1993, Israel agreed to give Palestinians self-rule in the West Bank and Gaze Strip
Indian National Congress INC, organization headed by Gandhi, promoted nonviolence as a means to gaining independence for India
Berlin Wall Wall built between East and West Berlin to prevent escape to West Germany; became a symbol of the Cold War and the iron curtain separating communism and democracy fell in 1989
Glasnost New policy of openness in the Soviet Union; allowed for freedom of speech and dissent or criticism of government; began by Gorbachev in the 1980s
Perestroika Restructuring of the Soviet government in the 1980s by Gorbachev; allowed some free enterprise and profit-making; created new Soviet Parliament and allowed for non-Communist parties
Shock Therapy Rapid shift to free market; Economics/capitalism in Russia began by Yeltsin after the end of the Soviet Union
Global Economy Interdependence of the economies of all of the countries of the world; globalization
Kyoto Protocol International agreement to reduce greenhouse gases emitted by each country
United Nations The UN; created after WWII to maintain peace; member countries must get UN permission to invade; has a military and raises money through dues
Declaration of Human Rights United Nations document that sets forth human rights standards for all nations, listing rights that all humans should have
Apartheid Brutal system of segregation in effect in South Africa until the 1990s; White Afirkaaners (former Boers) wanted to maintain power by discriminating against black Africans
Women's Suffrage Women's right to vote; many countries around the world gave women the right to vote after WWI due to their work to support the war effort
Migration Moving from one country to another due to political oppression, drought, natural disaster or in search of work
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement; eliminates tariffs/taxes on imports between the United States, Canada and Mexico
1974 Oil Crisis OPEC embargoed (refused to trade oil) to protest the US support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War
Desertification When fertile land turns into desert because land is overplanted or overgrazed
Deforestation Clearing of forests to provide more farmland, firewood and timber for a growing population, which has caused plants, animals and insects to lose their habitat
Greenhouse Effect Occurs when gases trap solar energy in the form of heat, the same way that a greenhouse for plants does
Palestinian Liberation Organization PLO; group formed to create a homeland for Palestinians after 700,000 Palestinians became homeless due to the creation of Israel
Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, US spy planes discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba; the US blockaded Cuba to prevent the USSR from sending more; USSR removed missiles and US agreed not to invade Cuba
Global Communication The use of television, satellites, computers and the internet to connect people and businesses worldwide
Arms Race Cold War competition between the US and the USSR to built up weapons, especially nuclear weapons; US President Reagan challenged the USSR and the USSR could not keep up; led to end of Soviet Union
Space Race For military reasons, US and USSR wanted to have best space technology; USSR first satellite and man in space; US first man on moon; caused US to focus on math and science in schools
Cold War No real fighting takes places but tensions are so high that war could break out at any moment; the US and the USSR had a Cold War after WWII
Front In war, the area in which action between the two sides takes place; WWI was fought on two fronts using trench warfare
Cash Crop Crops grown with the intent of exporting them to generate cash as opposed to staple crops which produce food needed locally; plantation colonies were created to produce cash crops
Empire Domination or control of many countries that may be culturally different by one, strong nation; occurs during colonization and imperialism
Satellite Nation Eastern European countries occupied by the USSR after WWII that become communist
Developing Nation A nation that has not industrialized
Revolution Overthrowing a government and replacing it with another government
Terrorism Use of force or threats to demoralize, intimidate or subjugate; used as a political weapon to try to force a government to give in to demands
Refugee A person who flees their home or country in times or war, natural disaster, or political or religious persecution
Weapons of Mass Destruction WMD-nuclear, chemical and biological weapons that can kill a large number of people at one time
Exploration Exploring unknown regions of the world; Europe began to explore sea routes to Asia for quicker and cheaper trade when the Silk Road went under Ottoman control
Expansion Gaining more territory to create an empire; usually to gain natural resources and markets; also to increase land/power, house military bases and spread culture and religion
Balfour Declaration British commitment to support the creation of a Jewish homeland after WWI; however, Israel was not created until after WWII in response to the Holocaust
Trade To buy and sell goods
Supply and Demand In a free market, supply (quantity of product) and demand (how many people want product) will determine quality and price; high demand and low supply will increase price
Scientific Method Question, hypothesis, experiment, observation, analysis, conclusion; applies reason to answer questions
Unification Joining groups together; Germany unified German-speaking countries under Bismarck and Wilhelm; Garibaldi and Cavour unified Italy under Emmanuel II
Realpolitick Blood and Iron; Otto Von Bismarck's nationalist belief that putting the interests of Germany above the individual was most important, even if it meant war
Haitian Revolution Led by L'Overture, only successful slave revolt in History; inspired by American and French Revolution; gained independence from France in 1804
Mexican Revolution Begun by Father Hidalgo, led by mestizos due to poor economic and working conditions and no political power; Mexican independence obtained in 1821.
Latin American Revolutions Led by Bolivar, drove out the Spanish in South America and created the short-lived Gran Colombia; broke into smaller countries due to lack of leadership
Open Door Policy US belief that all countries should have equal access to trade in China; US placed oil embargo on Japan when Japan invaded China; Japan retaliated by bombing Pearl Harbor.
Sphere of Influence A territorial area where a weaker country can only trade with one stronger country; In China, Great Britain and other European countries maintained spheres of influence leading to Boxer Rebellion
Black Friday US Stock Market Crash, October 29, 1929; Beginning of US Great Depression
Containment US policy to prevent the spread of communism; included the formation of NATO and the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan as well as American involvement in Korean and Vietnam Wars
D-Day Invasion of Nazi-held France on the beaches of Normandy by Allied Forces; beginning of the Allies' win on the western front in WWII
Peninsulare In Latin American social class, highest level; people from the mother country who control the government and military and own the land
Mestizo In Latin American social class; people of mixed race with one parent from Spanish heritage and one from native heritage; had very few rights
Creole In Latin American social class; second highest level; people born in the colony but of the heritage of the mother country; could not hold political office but could own land and be an officer in military
Communist Manifesto Book written by Karl Marx, explains socialism and the belief that the proletariat (oppressed workers) would overthrow the bourgeoisie (factory owners)
Steam Engine Created by James Watt; used coal to heat water to boiling to run engines; improved transportation and allowed factories to be built anywhere because they did not need to be water-powered
Munich Pact Example of appeasement; Great Britain and France agreed to give Hitler the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia if Hitler would agree not to invade any other land
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries-coordinates policies among oil-producing countries; embargoed oil to US in 1973 when US supported Israel in Yom Kippur War
Embargo Refusing to sell an item to another country
European Union Organization of 25 countries across Europe that work together on defense, economic policies and foreign affairs
Absolute Monarchy A form of government where there are no laws to restrict the rulers power; unlimited government
Estates General Political body consisting of all the estates in France; king Louis XVI called them to meet in 1789 prior to the French Revolution; 3rd Estate was unfairly taxed and left to form the National Assembly
Buying Stocks on Margin Purchasing stocks (a portion of a company) on credit, hoping the price will rise and the stock can be sold for a profit before the loan comes due; major cause of the Great Depression
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen French document modeled after the American Declaration of Independence and Enlightenment ideals
Declaration of Independence US document influenced by the ideas of John Locke, explains the reasons American colonies wanted to be free of Great Britain's government
Genocide Systematic killing of a racial or cultural group (Holocaust)
Entrepreneur A person who takes the risk of organizing and operating their own business; uses their own money and keeps the profits in a capitalist economy
Islam Religion founded in the Middle East and spread to Africa and India; In India, Muslims did not want to live under Hindu control and Pakistan was formed; major component in conflict between Israel and PLO
Judaism Religion founded in Middle East; after the Holocaust, Jews wanted a homeland (Zion promised by God); the UN voted to create Israel, which displaced hundreds of thousands of mostly Muslim Palestinians
Hinduism Religion founded in India; Muslims in India did not want to live under Hindu rule so Great Britain created East and West Pakistan when India was granted independence
Opium War Wars between China and Great Britain because Great Britain refused to quit trading in the addictive drug, opium, weakening China; Great Britain won
Trench Warfare Type of military combat during WWI where opposing armies are in trenches dug into the ground and neither side is able to advance
Created by: mcmahonr
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