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Kinetics

Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Who is the father of pharmacoknetics? Torsten Teorell
bio availability is known as rate and extent
the assessment of effects of physiological and pathological conditions on drug ADME is known as clinical PK
Define CFLADMER Chemistry Formulation liberation Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Respons
Define elimination metabolism and excretion
define disposition Distribution, metabolism, and excretion
By using PK, we can predict ? (3) dose, dosing interval, target plasma concentration
A SHORTER half life means a dose is given more or less frequent? MORE
Name the (3) crtical determinants of the in vivo performance, safety, and efficacy of the drug product physiochemical characteristics of API Dosage form Route of admin
The goal of engineering a drug is to have one that is _____ and gives the desired _________ _________-- stable, therapeutic response
acid drug in acidic medium is unionized
which route of administration goes directly into systemic circulation Intravenous
what is the sceince that examines the interrelationship of the physiochemical properties of the drug, the dosage form, and the route of admin on the rate and extent of systemic drug absorption biopharmaceutics
what is the primary concern in biopharmaceutics bioavailability
what is the study of techniological and fundamental aspects related to the formulation and fabrication of dosage forms pharmaceutics
what studies the physioloical and dosage form factors affecting the release and subsequent absorption of drugs from drug delivery systems biopharmaceutics
define in vitro procedures employing test apparatus and equipment without involving lab animals or humans
define in vivo more complex involving human subjects or lab animals
the science of the kinetics of ADME. Or fate of the drug in the body pharmacokinetics
drug distribution and elimination drug disposition
application of PK methods to drug therapy clinical PK
relationship between the drug concentration at the site of action and pharmacologic response. Or fate of body due to drug action pharmacodynamic
which graph is sigmoidal pharmacodynamics
PK/PD graph is used to predict clinical doses
application of PK principles to the design, conduct and interpretation of drug safety evaluation and used in validating dose related to exposure in animals toxicokinetics and clinical toxicology
TK data can be extrapolated to humans. T or F true
Define MTC minimum toxic concentration
define MEC minimum effective concentration
assumption when looking at a plasma level time curve the drug concentration in plasma is in equilibrium with the tissues
the minimum concentration of drug needed at the receptor to produce the desired pharmacological effect MEC
the concentration needed to just barely produce a toxic effect MTC
biopharmaceutic parameters that can be used to describe drug C max, Tmax, AUC
is it possible to sample drug at the biophase where the receptor resides NO
sampling drug concentrations in the plasma is a ______ measurement direct
sampling drug concentrations in the urine, saliva, CSF, feces, and milk are __________ measurements indirect
what describes the predictable relationship between plasma drug concentrations and concentrations at the receptor sites kinetic homogeneity
blood = blood cells and plasma
plasma = serum and clotting factors
are blood or plasma concentrations used in PK plasma
plasma samples have to go through an addition procedure in ordert o obtain the free drug level. T or F True
the major variability in the therapeutic outcomes is due to pharmacokinetic variability
a graph is NEVER required for data analysis . T or F true
A graph changes data. T or F False
a graph represents data in an easily comprehended, visual manner. T or F true
on semilog, which axis is typically log Y axis
on linear paper, both x and y axes are in logarithmic fashion. T or F False, log-log paper
Should you place trailing zeros after a decimal point? no
a leading zero should always be placed before the decimal point. T or F True
y=mx + b; define each letter y= dependent variable m=slope x= independent variable b= intercept
dependent variable axis ordinate
independent variable axis abscissa
slope is defined as the change in y over the change in x
on a semi long, when solving for slope, is the x or y as a ln the Y variables
what is the most common method in kinetics for determing the AUC for plasma concentration vs time date trapezoidal rule
log100= log10^2= ? 2
log 1000= log 10 ^3= ? 3
Natural log, base e=? 2.72
log (a times b)= log A + log B
log (a/b) = log A - log B
log a^n = n log a
log e^x = x
if the data is plotted and it is a curved line, the slope is or is not constant is NOT, its a function of X
zero order processes are common in chemical engineering
first order processes are most common in drugs and chemicals
michaelis-menton processes are _____and is common in mixed kinetics, drug metabolism and biochemistry
michaelis menton kinetics is actuallly a combination of a first order process that turns into a zero order process at higher substrate concentrations. T or F TRUE
the rate of a reaction is proportional to the molar concentrations of the reactants each raised to power equal to the number of moelcules undergoing reaction law of mass action
In zero order, rate is _______ of concentration independent
in first order, rate is _____ of concentration dependent
first order depends on how many species 1
a second order process depends on how many species 2
most drugs undergo ______ order first
order refers to the way in which concentration or the amount of drug/reactants influences the rate of a process
zero order is a _____ administration continuous
zero order is only dependent of the _________ of the drug, not the concentration administration
for first order, the rate of the concentration vs. time is dependent on the concentration
for zero order, the units for rate constant are mass/time or concentration/time
for first order, the units for rate constant are 1/time (ie. 0.5^-hr)
usually only the parent drug is measured experimentally. T or F True
the rate of a reaction is determined experimentally by measureing the disappearance of _________ at given time intervals the parent drug
the rate is constant all the time in zero order kinetics. T or F TRUE
in zero order, the rate does depend on the amount of drug. T or F. False, is does NOT
zero order: it will always be eliminated at a FIXED rate. T or F true
Co = initial concentration at time zero
C= concentration at time t
k= rate constant
plotted data, get a straight, zero or first order? zero
T 1/2 equation for zero order is Co/ 2K
T1/2 equation for first order is 0.693/ k
we usually see zero order kinetics resulting from a saturation of a system, carrier mediated transport, metabolic enzymes, sustained release drug systems, and constant rate infusions
if a system becomes saturated, what order will it become zero
plot data, get straight line = zero
plot data, get concave up line first
plot semi log data, get concave down line zero
plot semi log data, get straight line first
how many half lives doe sit take for 100 % of drug to be removed infinite
most drugs are delivered as salts. T or F true
is the same salt always used between dosage forms? no
s value. the s stands for salt and represents the fraction of the molecule that represents the active drug
f stands for bioavailability
F is NEVER applied with intravenous dosing. T or F True
define F its a function of the particular drug product, by a particular manufacturer given by a particular route and dosage form
S applies to any dosing route. T or F True
S is a function of the chemical salt, not who makes its or its dosage form
how to find the amount of drub absorbed or reaching the systemic circulation = (S)(F)(dose)
when does S=1 when a drug is adminstered in its parent or active form
pharmacokinetic models can summarize or compress data
an assumption made in PK models is plasma concentration of a drug is often assumed to be a reflection of its concentration at its site of action
do PK parameters change with dose? NO
Does Vd change with dose? NO
what is a common type of model used in PK compartmental model
organs or tissues in which drug distribution is similar are grouped into a compartment. T or F true
which organs are typically in the Central highly perfused organs
does a compartment represent a specific tissue or fluid or a real physiologic or anatomic region? NO
is the mixing of a drug within a compartment assumed to be uniform, rapid and homogenous YEs
compartment models are based on linear or nonlinear assumptions? linear
should the simplest model be selected first? yes
lipophilic drugs are typically described by the _____ compartment multi
drugs (mostly polar molecules) are typically described by the ____ compartment one
selection of compartment model depends solely upon the _______ characteristics of a drug DISTRIBUTION
typically the ______ the drug distribution regardless of the route of admin, the greater the number of compartments required to characterize plazma conc. vs. time data and complex is equation SLOWER
Rapid distribution = ______ compartment one
a curve in a line represents the transition from 1 compartment to the next
no absorption phase is represented in what type of administration intravenous
a straight line suggests instantaneous drug distribution
two phases in a line suggests _____ compartment and ______distribution two , slow
alpha phase= distribution
beta phase= post distribution
which phase is more rapid alpha
which model has an absorption and elimination phase one
in a rapid absorption there is no ________ phase absorption
in a rapid equilibrium in body you have no _______ phase distribution
unless otherwise mentioned, always assume _______ order first
AUC represents extend
the unit for AUC is time. concentration
when is AUC directly proportional to the dose linear conditions
AUC= Co/ K OR y intercept/ slope
apparent volume of distribution defined the value of the volume of distribution does NOT have a true physiological meaning
Vd describeds distribution characteristics of the ___ drug
Vd= dose/Do
in a one compartment model, the Vd does not change from T=0 to infinite. T or F true
Vd is usually published in what units L/kg
Clearance defined the apparent volume of bodily fluids cleared of drug per unit of time
Cl= D/AUC
units for clearance L/hr/kg or ml/min/kg
Cl= Vd x K
Created by: efranklin15
 

 



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