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civilization characterized by cities, specialized labor, complex institutions, record- keeping, and advanced technology
steppe A vast, semiarid grassland
polytheistic belief in many gods
monotheistic belief in a single god
pictograph a pictorial symbol for a word or phrase.
cultural diffusion spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another; trade routes, missionaries
city-state a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state
empire a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler.
hierarchy a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.
cuneiform wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing system of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, Surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.
ziggurats a rectangular stepped tower, sometimes surrounded by a temple.
codify arrange according to a plan or system
bureaucracy a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
colony a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied.
alphabet the letters of a language in their customary order
covenant an agreement
matriarchal a system of society or government controlled by women
patriarchial a system of society or government controlled by men
ethics moral principles that govern how a person behaves
papyrus a material prepared in ancient Egypt from the Pithy stem of a water plant, used in sheets throughout the ancient Mediterranean world for writing or painting on and also for making rope, sandals, and boats.
mummification the process of embalming a body and wrapping it in cloth
pharaoh a king of ancient Egypt, considered to be a god on Earth
dynasty sequence of rulers from the same family or group
monsoon the seasonal wind of the Indian Ocean and Southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in the summer and from the northeast in the winter
acculturation the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of a different group.
karma action, seen as bringing upon oneself inevitable result, good or bad, either in this life or in a reincarnation.
reincarnation the belief that the soul, upon death of the body, comes back to earth in another body or form.
caste each of the hereditary classes of Hindu society, distinguished by relative degrees of ritual purity or pollution and of social status
nirvana a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of Karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Buddha.
dissent the expression or holding of opinions at variance with those previously, commonly, or officially held.
dowry property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage
Dynastic cycle pattern of rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties in China; rulers had a divine approval called the Mandate of Heaven
calligraphy decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering.
filial piety the important virtue and primary duty of respect, obedience, and care for one's parents and elderly family members.
monopoly the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service
acupuncture a Chinese medical practice or procedure that treats illness or provides local anesthesia by the insertion of needles at specified sites of the body
Created by: adinabuice