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Chapter 13

What did Henry Bessemer invent? the Bessemer process
Why is the Bessemer process significant? was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace
What did Karl Marx predict would be the final result of centuries of class struggle and economic competition? Private ownership of farms and factories would be abolished
How did enclosures impact society and the Industrial Revolution? increasing the land available for agriculture
What is dynamo? an electric generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator
How did the dynamo help create the telegraph? the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication it worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between two distances
What was the Women's Suffrage Movement? women protesting/fighting/working for the right to vote
How did the growth of canals and railroads impact the Industrial Revolution? It made it easier to transport people and goods. Railroads offered advantages over canals for transportation of goods
In practice, which economic system led to the highest degree of government control over economic decisions? Marxism
How did the population effect factory growth? The enclosure movement created a large class of unemployed agricultural workers who in turn went to work in factories
What did Guglielmo Marconi invent? radio
How did the internal combustion engine impact later inventions? led to the invention of the automobile
What were some new developments in chemistry by Dalton and Mendeleyev? the development of the atomic theory
How did Watt's steam-engine impact transportation? it created a revolution in transportation
What did Adam Smith write? Wealth of Nations
How did Adam Smith say prices should be regulated? by the laws of supply and demand
How did the steam locomotive affect other forms of transportation? water transportation declined within countries
Discuss bourgeois and proletariat according to Karl Marx In place of the bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which free development of each is the condition for free development of all
During the Industrial Revolution, were boys or girls more likely to receive instruction in science and mathematics? Boys were more likely than girls to receive instruction in science and mathematics
How were child labor laws changed during the Industrial Revolution? new regulations were created to ease working conditions for children
Define the term "putting-out" in relation to the factory system the factory system allowed more cloth to be produced at a lower cost
What was a reason for prohibition according to leaders of the temperance movement? a decrease in domestic violence
Explain Social Darwinism survival of the fittest or natural selection
How did Social Darwinism impact values and beliefs during the industrial age? people thought it was okay to take advantage of the non-industrialized people and places
What did Alfred Noble invent? dynamite
Why was the industrialization of Belgium significant? Belgium broke Britain's monopoly on industrial technology
Were railroads or canals the preferred way of transportation after the Industrial Revolution? railroads
How did natural resources affect where towns were being created? larger cities sprang up around places with more natural resources
Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio, which allowed wired communication by Morse Code over long distances
Thomas Edison an American inventor who made the first electric lightbulb
Alfred Noble a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite
Henry Bessemer developed a new process for making steel from iron
Communism a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
Karl Marx a German philosopher who promoted communism
Socialism the people as a whole rather than private individuals who own and operate the means of production
Urbanization the movement of people to cities
James Watt invented the steam engine to power machines, locomotives, and steamships
Enclosure the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
Labor Unions organizations of workers who bargained for better pay and working conditions
Entrepreneur someone who manages and assumes the financial risks of starting new business
Capital the money used to invest in enterprises
Created by: MorgannGregory