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Greece Vocab

polis Greek word for "city-state"
classical referring to ancient Greek or Latin language or culture
acropolis high hill in the center of a city-state, often with a fortress on top
democracy type of government in which the people rule themselves
aristocrats wealthy landowners with political power
oligarchy rule by a few, usually aristocrats
citizens people who have the right to participate in government; in Athens, they were free males
tyrant a ruler who gets and keeps his power by use of force
mythology body of stories in a religious tradition, meant to explain how the world works
Homer most famous Greek poet; wrote epic poetry such as The Iliad and The Odyssey
Sappho Greek lyric poet; a woman
Aesop famous Greek writer of fables
fables stories meant to teach a lesson
Cyrus the Great first Persian emperor
cavalry soldiers on horseback
Darius I Persian emperor who invaded Greece
Persian Wars series of wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire; Greeks won
Xerxes I Persian emperor whose troops defeated Spartans @ Thermopylae, and whose navy was defeated by Athens in Battle of Salamis (end of Persian Wars)
alliance an agreement to work together
Peloponnesian War war between Sparta and other city-states against Athens; response to Athens's abuse of power in the Delian League after the Persian Wars; led to city-states being vulnerable to defeat by Macedonians
Philip II Macedonian conqueror of Greek city-states; passed on his empire to his son, Alexander the Great
phalanx battle formation where soldiers stand in a square in tight rows, holding spears and shields; Alexander the Great improved upon this strategy with much longer spears
Alexander the Great Macedonian who built the largest empire the world had ever seen; responsible for spreading Greek culture throughout his empire
Hellenistic "Greek-ish," refers to spread of Greek culture throughout ATG's empire
Socrates famous Greek philosopher
Plato famous Greek philosopher
Aristotle famous Greek philosopher; tutor of Alexander the Great
Euclid Greek mathematician; father of geometry
Hippocrates Greek doctor; father of modern medicine
Created by: jfrederick