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Common Urinalysis Tests

PHYSICAL EVALUATION Color, Clarity, Specific Gravity
Color Abnormal: Clinically significant results from blood melanin, bilirubin, urobilin in samples
Clarity Turbidity may be result of chyle, fat, bacteria, RBCs, WBCs or precipitated crystals
Specific Gravity Variations of dissolved solids in urine is normal; inconsistencies suggest renal tubular involvement or ADH deficiency
CHEMICAL EVALUATION Blood, bilirubin, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, pH, protein, nitrite, urobilinogen
Blood Hematuria: result of hemorrhage, infection or trauma
Bilirubin Aids in differentiating obstructive jaundice from hemolytic jaundice (which will not increase bilirubin in urine)
Glucose Glucosuria: may be result of DM Diabetes Mellitus, renal impairment or ingestion of large amount of carbohydrates
Ketones Elevated ketones occur in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation
Leukocyte Esterase Certain white cells (neutrophils) in abundance indicate UTI
pH Variations in pH indicate changes in acid-based balance (normal); loss of ability to vary pH indicates tissue breakdown
Protein Proteinuria: indicator of renal disorder. Ex. injury or renal tube dysfunction
Nitrite Positive result suggests bacterial infection. Significant only on 1st morning specimen or urine incubated in bladder for at least 4 hours.
Urobilinogen Occurs in increased amounts when patient has hepatic problems or hemolytic disorders
MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION Analysis of urinary sediment reveals status of the urinary tract, hematuria, pyuria. Presence of casts and tissue cells is a pathologic indicator
Created by: MCasler