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Anatomical & Surgical Pathology & Tests

Anatomical & Surgical Pathology: Histology, Cytology
HISTOLOGY Study of Microscopic structure of tissues. Evaluation of samples of tissues from surgeries/autopsies under microscope to determine if normal or pathological (diseased).
2 Common diagnostic techniques in lab (Histology) Biopsy: Obtained samples via removal of a plug (small piece) of tissue from and organ & microscopically examining. Frozen Section: Obtained via surgery and freezing & examining it immediately to determine if further surgery is needed.
Histologist Role: Processing & staining sample tissues to evaluate.
CYTOLOGY Study of structure of CELLS. Cells in tissues & fluids are ID'ed, counted and studied to Dx malignant and premalignant conditions.
Histologist Role: Process & prepare specimens for evaluation by pathologists or cytotechnologists.
Pap Smear (Cytology) Test for early detection of cancer cells of the cervix, vagina and is an exam performed by Cytology Department. Named after Dr. George N Papanicolaou, who developed a staining technique to detect malignant cells.
Two areas in larger labs: Cytogenetic and Flow Cytometry
Cytogenetics (Classified under: Clinical Analysis Areas*) Samples are examined microscopically for chromosomal deficiencies related to genetic diseases, solid tissues, prenatal specimens & bone marrow. Classified under: Clinical Analysis Areas*
Flow Cytometry (Classified under: Clinical Analysis Areas*) Has many applications in routine clinical Dx & is used for clinical trials in basic research to analyze and sort cells.
The BD FACSCalibur (modular analyzer for stem cell analysis, T&B leukocyte assay & human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) tissue typing/crossmatching for organ transplants).
Satellite Labs Ex. lab services in large tertiary care facilities. Specialized labs located close to population they serve to facilitate better outcomes for pt.'s by drastically reducing TATs for test results or STAT results In an ER. Close to ER/Surgery Op or Recovery
TATs Turnaround Times for test results.
Reference Labs Large independent labs receiving specimens from many different facilities located in same city or others in same state or even out of state. Provide routine & specialized blood analysis. Benefit: Cost per test is reduced due to high vol. of tests.
Pathologist (Clinical Lab Personnel) A Physician specializing in Dx disease via lab results, in removed tissues or postmortem exams. Duty: To direct lab services to benefit dr/pt. .
Lab Director (Clinical Lab Personnel) May be a pathologist or clinical lab scientist with a doctorate. The Lab Director and Lab Administrator share responsibilities for managing the lab.
Lab Administrator/Lab Manager Usually a Tech with advance degree and several years of experience. Duties: Oversee all operations involving Physician and Pt. services. May supervise ancillary services: Radiology/Respiratory Therapy or lg. geographic areas.
Technical Supervisor Each lab section or subsection has a Tech Supervisor. Duties: Responsible for administration of the area and who reports to the lab admin. Has addtl. education & experience in 1 or more of the clinical lab areas.
(MT) Medical Technologist or (MLS) Medical Lab Scientist BS Bachelors Degree + addtl. experience or studies. Some states require licensure.
MT/MLS Duties Perform all levels of testing, reporting results, perform quality control, eval. new procedures, conduct preventive maintenance and troubleshooting on instruments.
In 2009 ASCP Board of Registry & NCA for Clinical Lab Personnel: Were unified into a single certifying agency. All individuals with and active NCA were transitioned over to the ASCP Board of Certification (BOC). No further req., until recert is due.
cont. All CLS(NCA) certificants who had active credential with NCA were transferred over to BOC as MLS(ASCP).
(MLT) Medical Lab Technician Associates degree from 2 yr program or cert from military or proprietary (private) school. Some states require licensing. Duties: Perform all routine tests, operate all equipment, basic instrument maint. & assist in Problem solving.
cont. All CLT(NCA) certificants active credential with NCA on oct. 23, 2009 were transferred to the BOC as MLT(ASCP).
(CLA) Clinical Lab Assistant Person with phlebotomy experience, with skills in specimen processing and basic lab testing. Generalists responsibly for assisting MLS or MLT with workloads in any area.
Phlebotomist Trained to collect blood for lab tests for Dx and care of pt. Used as Lab assistant or specimen processors. Formal programs req. H.S diploma or equivalent. Can be certified after 1 yr of exp. or pass national exam. Few states req. license.
Other Lab Personnel
LIS (Lab Info Systems Manager) Ensures proper functioning of info processing system, oversees upgrades & maintenance of software/hardware.
Quality & Compliance coordinator Oversees procedures, policies and processes for cont. quality improvement.
POC (Point of Care) Supervisor Works closely with nursing staff and Outpatient services to ensure quality of POCT results. QC Checks instruments and performance of use of them.
Education Coordinator Oversees all students chosen to do clinical practicum in their lab. To verify student credentials, meet health and safety req.'s "gatekeeper" for internships or cont. education.
Supervisor of Support Services (such as PHLB) (and central processing). Makes certain all specimens are correctly colletcted, received & prepared for testing. Provides PHLB & Central Processing staff w/ training, tech direction, training support and resolution of problems in lab day to day.
CLIA '88 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act of 1988 Federal law allowing the CMS in the Dpt. of HHS to regulate all sites performing lab testing in the U.S. CLIA regulations mandate all labs use same standards regardless of location, type or size.
Created by: MCasler



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