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APHG 11e Ch 9

Rubenstein APHG Chapter 9 & 11 Vocab

TermDefinition
Active solar energy systems Solar energy systems that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices such as photovoltaic cells or flat plate collectors.
Adolescent fertility rate The number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19.
Biomass fuel Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
Breeder reactor A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium.
Demand The quantity of something that consumers are willing and able to buy.
Developed country (more developed country [MDC]) A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
Developing country (less developed country [LDC]) A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
Development A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Fair trade Trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
Femable labor force participation rate The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home.
Fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Fossil fuel An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) The pumping of water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas.
Fusion Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
Gender Inequality Index (GII) A measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality.
Geothermal energy Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
Gross domestic product (GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year).
Gross national income (GNI) The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country.
Housing bubble A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value.
Human Development Index (HDI) An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, that is based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Hydroelectric power Power generated from moving water.
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) Modification of the HDI to account for inequality within a country.
Literacy rate The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
Maternal mortality ratio The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births.
Microfinance Provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries.
Millenium Development Goals Eight international development goals that all members of the United Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015.
Nonrenewable energy A source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
Passive solar energy systems Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices.
Photovoltaic cell A solar energy cell, usually made from silicon, that collects solar rays to generate electricity.
Potential reserve The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist.
Primary sector The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Productivity The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Proven reserve The amount of a resource remaining in discovery deposits.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country; adjusts income figures to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods.
Radioactive waste Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, materials must be safely stored for thousands of years.
Renewable energy A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
Secondary sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Structural adjustment program Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade (raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, etc.)
Supply The quantity of something that producers have available for sale.
Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes to extend to the provision of all goods and services to people, in exchange for payment.
Uneven development Development of core regions at the expense of those on the periphery.
Value added The gross value of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Acid Deposition Sulfur and nitrogen oxides that enter the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels and mix into sulfuric and nitric acid and come back to Earth's surface.
Acid Precipitation Sulfur and nitrogen oxides turn to acids and come down to earth as rain, snow, or fog.
Air Pollution Concentration of pollutants like carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide in greater levels than average air.
Apparel Article of clothing.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) The amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose organic waste; this is a measure of water pollution.
Break-of-Bulk point Location where transfer of one mode of transport to another takes place.
Bulk-gaining industry Industry where final product has greater volume than inputs.
Bulk-reducing industry Industry where final product has less volume than inputs.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Gas used as solvent, propellant in aerosols, refrigerant, and in plastic foams and extinguishers.
Cottage industry Manufacturing based in homes, which was common before Industrial Revolution.
Ferrous Metals for production of iron and steel.
Fordist Production Each worker is assigned one task to complete repeatedly.
Greenhouse Effect Increased in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide, trapping radiation emitted by Earth's surface.
Industrial Revolution Series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed manufacturing.
Just-in-time Delivery Shipment of parts to a factory moments before they are needed.
Labor-intensive industry Industry where labor costs are high.
Maquiladora Factory built by a U.S. company in Mexico along the border to take advantage of cheap labor costs.
New International Division of Labor Transfer of low-paid and less-skilled jobs from developed countries to developing countries.
Nonferrous Metals used to make products other than iron and steel.
Nonpoint-source pollution Pollution that starts from a large area.
Outsourcing Decision by corporation to move production to independent suppliers.
Ozone Gas that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, found in the stratosphere above Earth's surface.
Photochemical Smog Atmospheric condition formed through pollution and weather, comes from vehicle emissions.
Point-source Pollution Pollution that enters body of water from a specific source.
Right-to-work Law U.S. law that prevents union from negotiating contracts that require people to become union members.
Sanitary Landfill Place to deposit solid waste, where earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions.
Created by: trisjohnson