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OAMS123

Medical Terminology Chapter 10 - Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Nerve macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carries electric impulses.
Neuron nerve cells that carry impulses throughout the body.
Two major division of Nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Central nervous system it consist of brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system Consist of cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nerves (sympathetic; parasympathetic), plexuses, and peripheral nerves.
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck.
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
Autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Sympathetic nerve Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
Parasympathetic nerve Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
Stimulus / Stimuli (pl.) Agent of change (light, sound, touch, pressure, and pain) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Dendrites Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
Ganglia / Ganglion (sing.) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell.
Synapse Greek word "synapsis" meaning a point of contact.. Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
Neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell
Example of a neurotransmitter: 1. Acetylcholine 2. Norepinephrine 3. Epinephrine (adrenaline) 4. Dopamine (happy hormones) 5. Serotonin 6. Endorphins
Parenchyma Essential, functioning cells of any organ. Neurons are the parenchyma of the nervous system.
Stroma Connective and supportive tissue of an organ.
Glial cell Stromal tissue of central nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function of: astrocyte, microglial cell, and ependymal cell.
Four types of supporting or glial cells: 1. Astrocytes 2. Microglial cells 3. Oligodendroglial cells (Oligodendrocytes) 4. Ependymal cells
Astrocytes Star-like in appearance glial (neuroglial) cell that transports salt and water from the capillaries.
Microglial cells Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
Oligodendroglial cell Glial (neuroglial) cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon the a neuron.
Ependymal cell Greek ependyma means upper garment. A glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form a cerebrospinal fluid.
Blood brain barrier (BBB) Protective separation between the blood and brain cells.
Brain Weighs 3 pounds and controls body activities.
Cerebrum "thinking area". Largest part of the brain,; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory, among other functions.
Cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum.
Gyri / gyrus Sheet nerve of nerve cells the produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum.
Sulci / sulcus Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex.
Cerebral hemispheres each of the two parts of the cerebrum (left and right) in the brain.
Four major lobes of each hemisphere: 1. Frontal lobe 2. Parietal lobe 3. Temporal lobe 4. Occipital lobe
Frontal lobe Thought processes, behavior, personality, emotion.
Parietal lobe Body sensations, visual and spatial perception.
Temporal lobe Hearing, understanding speech, language
Occipital lobe Vision
Ventricles Fluid filled canals in the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord; it protects the brain and spinal cord from shock by acting like a cushion.
Lumbar puncture (LP) Withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between two lumbar vertebrae.
Thalamus Acts like a triage center. Main relay center of the brain; located in the central region of the brain.
Hypothalamus Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Cerebellum Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Midbrain The uppermost portion of the brainstem.
Pons Part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain. The pons connects the upper and lower portions of the brain.
Medulla oblongata Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.
Brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
Three important vital centers of medulla oblongata: 1. Respiratory center 2. Cardiac Center 3. Vasomotor center
Respiratory center Controls muscles of respiration in response to chemicals or other stimuli.
Cardiac center Slows the heart rate when the heart is beating too rapidly.
Vasomotor center Affects the muscles in the walls of blood vessels, this influencing blood pressure.
Spinal cord A column of nervous tissue extending from the medulla oblongata to hte second lumbar vertebra within the vertebral column.
Cauda equina Latin for "horse tail". Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Meninges Three layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Subdural space Below the Dural membrane.
Arachnoid membrane Loosely attached to the other meninges by web-like fibers; it is the middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Subarachnoid space It contains cerebrospinal fluid
Pia mater Thin, delicate, and innermost membrane of the meninges, closest to the brain and spinal cord.
Created by: espinosaa3