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Chapter Twenty-Nine

Nuremberg Trials Trials at an Allied court that brought several dozen Nazi military leaders to justice for crimes committed during WWII
Cold War A post-WWII era of open hostility and high tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Iron Curtain Winston Churchill's term for the division of Europe created by Soviet actions
Truman Doctrine U.S. pledge to provide economic and military aid to oppose the spread of communism
Marshall Plan A massive program of U.S. economic air to help Western Europe make a rapid recover from the war and remain politically stable
Containment A policy resisting Soviet aggression to contain the spread of communism
Berlin Airlift A massive effort to supply West Berlin by air after the Soviets blockade it
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance between the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe designed to counter Soviet power in Europe
Warsaw Pact An alliance formed between the S.U. and the Communist nations of Eastern Europe
Hydrogen Bomb An immensely destructive weapon powered by nuclear fusion
Deterrence The development of or maintenance of military power to deter an attack
Arms Race A struggle between nations to gain an advantage in weapons
Sputnik The world's first satellite, a human-made object launched in 1957 by the S.U. that flies in orbit around the Earth
Bay of Pigs Invasion Unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by a secretly trained force, which U.S. leaders believed would result in a massive uprising to overthrow Fidel Castro
Cuban Missile Crisis A tense standoff between the U.S. and the S.U. that occurred after the Soviets installed nuclear missiles in Cuba
Nonaligned Nations Countries that refused to support either side during the Cold War and tried to promote the interest of poorer countries
Detnte Reduced tension between the superpowers
Martin Luther King Jr. Leader of a civil rights campaign that exposed racial injustice and won reforms
Counterculture A youth movement that rebelled against mainstream American society
Solidarity A movement of Polish workers who united against the Communist government and Soviet control
Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet leader who came to power in 1985 and made changes in the nation's economy and government
Glasnost "Openness," a willingness to discuss the problems of the S.U.
Perestroika "Restructuring," a concept for the reform of the Soviet economic and political system
Velvet Revolution A peaceful revolution that removed Communists from power in Czechoslovakia
Boris Yeltsin Leader of the republic of Russia who favored more radical change than Gorbachev did
Ethnic Cleansing Elimination of an ethnic group through killing or forced emigration
Internet A system of networks that connects computers around the world
Saddam Hussein Dictator of Iraq who invaded neighboring Kuwait in August 1990
Persia Gulf War War in which a UN- authorized multinational force led by the U.S. forced the Iraq military to leave Kuwait
Al Qaeda Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S. targets
Osama Bin Laden Al Qaeda leader who aims to unite Muslims and destroy the U.S.
Taliban Islamist government of Afghanistan that supported and protected members of al Qaeda
Created by: annaperrell