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Ch 5 Vocabulary

TitleDefinition
Alexander the Great the Greek conqueror who spread his empire as far as India. Despite the empire's breakup after his death, Alexander's conquests spread Greek culture throughout the known world
Antiochus IV ("Epiphanes") the Seleucid king who tried to force Hellenism, including Greek religion, on his Jewish subjects
Aramaic a language closely related to Hebrew that was spoken throughout the Middle East. After the exile, most Jews probably spoke Aramaic as their everyday language
Aristobulus the Jewish high priest who declared himself king in Jerusalem. He was a Levite, not a descendant of David
Babylon the great imperial city to which the conquered people of Judah were taken as captives by Nebuchadnezzar
Beyond the river the Persian name for the province that included Judah
Cyrus the Persian king who conquered Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem
Exile the time the people of Judah spent as captives in Babylon
Ezra a priest who led the returned exiles in Jerusalem, and who put together the standard edition of the Old Testament scriptures.
Galilee a district of Israel whose population was not deported with the rest of the kingdom
Gerizim the mountain on which the Samaritans had their temple to God
Hellenism the fashion of adopting Greek culture and ideas, popular all over the Middle East after Alexander's conquests
Herod the Great a wickedly ambitious king who took over the government of Palestine with the support of the Romans. He was an Edomite, but he portrayed himself as a Jew returned from exile
Hezekiah the reforming king of Judah who temporarily returned Judah to the pure worship of God
Holy of Holies the inner sanctuary of the Temple. In the rebuilt Temple, it was empty; the Ark of the Covenant had been hidden
John Hyrcanus the Jewish high priest who conquered almost all the territory of the ancient Davidic kingdom and "Judiazed" the whole country
Isaiah the great prophet who guided the reforms of Hezekiah. His prophecies often refer to the coming of the Messiah
Jeremiah a great prophet who stood up to official persecution to bring God's word to the people of Judah. He saw his people being carried off to captivity in Babylon captivity, but he predicted
Jew originally a member of the tribe of Judah, but used from the Exile on to refer to any inhabitant of the old territory of Judah, including the remnants of the tribes of Benjamin and Levi. In a religious sense, it came to mean anyone who was committed to th
Josiah a reforming king of Judah who returned the people to the worship of the True God. During his reign the Book of the Law was found in the Temple, where it might have been hidden during Manasseh's persecutions
Judaism the practice of traditional Jewish religion, defined in opposition to "hellenism"
Judas Maccabeus the Jewish general who led the revolt against Antiochus IV
Maccabees the collective name of Judas Maccabeus and his brothers, leaders of the Jewish revolt against Antiochus IV
Manasseh a king of Judah who destroyed all his father Hezekiah's reforms and persecuted the worshipers of the True God. After many disasters, he repented and turned back to God
Martyr one who dies for the sake of faith in God. Greek or "witness"
Mattathias a priest who touched off the Jewish revolt against Antiochus IV. He was the father of Judas Maccabeus
Messiah "Anointed One." The ideal future king of Israel promised by God through the prophets. The Greek translation is "christ"
Naphtali one of the northern tribes in Galilee not deported with the rest of Israel
Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon who finally conquered Judah and carried the best families off to exile in Babylon
Nehemiah a wealthy Jew who persuaded the Persian king to make him governor of the province that included Jerusalem. He rebuilt the city's defenses
Persia the great empire that conquered Babylon and freed the Jews from exile. The Persians allowed their subjects to keep their own customs, and the Jews prospered under Persian rule
Pharisees a Jewish sect that believed in keeping separate from the Gentiles. They followed the Law of Moses strictly and added many traditional interpretations and regulations of their own
Purgatory a state of final purification after death and before entrance into heaven for those who died in God's friendship but were only imperfectly purified. God's people knew their prayers were efficacious for the dead even in the time of the Maccabees
Sadducees a Jewish sect that believed in accommodating Judaism to modern life. They held most of the positions of power in the priesthood. Sadducees did not believe in the resurrection and denied the existence of angels and spirits
Samaritans the mixed population that inhabited the old territory of Israel during the Exile. They were hostile to the returning exiles
Remnant in Isaiah, the small number out of all God's people who will return to Jerusalem after the coming exile. The idea was so important to Isaiah that he named one of his children A-Remnant-Shall-Return
Resurrection the time when the faithful people who have died will come back to eternal life. "All the dead will rise, those who have done good to the resurrection of life and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment" (CCC 998)
Seleucids the Greek rulers of the eastern part of Alexander's empire. Their territory included Palestine
Tetrarchy the division of Herod the Great's kingdom among his four sons
Zebulun one of the northern tribes in Galilee not deported with the rest of Israel
Created by: emily2021
 

 



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