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Mesopotamia

QuestionAnswer
Why did people settle near water? They settled near water because that is where the crops would grow best. When water was available, and regular floods occurred, the soil would become richer and more fertile for crops.
What does Mesopotamia mean? It means "between the rivers" in Greek.
What are the two most important physical features of Mesopotamia? The Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
What is the Fertile Crescent? A large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland.
What do we call a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks? Silt
What is irrigation? Why was it so helpful? Irrigation is a way of supplying water to an area of land. Irrigation helped the farmers control the rivers' flow so that it didn't destroy their crops.
What do we call an over abundance of food (more than we need)? A surplus
What are canals? What was their importance? Canals are human-made waterways. They protected houses from flooding and moved water to their fields.
What do we call the type of arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job? Division of labor
Who were the people who developed the world's first civilization? The Sumerians
Define rural Countryside areas.
Define urban City areas
What is a city-state? It consisted of a city and all the countryside around it.
The amount of countryside controlled by each city-state depended on what? Their military strength. Stronger city-states controlled larger areas.
Who was one of Uruk's kings who became a legendary figure in Sumerian literature? Gilgamesh
Who built the capital, Akkad, on the Euphrates River, near what is now the city of Baghdad? Sargon
Sargon was the first ruler to have what? A permanent army
Sargon established the world's first what? Empire
Define empire Land with different territories and peoples under a single rule.
What is polytheism? Polytheism is the worship of many gods.
Who were some of the gods they worshipped? Enlil, the lord of the air; Enki, god of wisdom; and Inanna, goddess of love and war. The sun and moon were represented by the Gods Utu and Nanna.
Who are priests? Priests are people who perform religious ceremonies.
What is social hierarchy? The division of society by rank or class.
Describe the social order/ hierarchy. Kings were at the top, below them were priests, below them were skilled craftspeople, merchants, and traders. Below them were farmers and laborers. At the very bottom were slaves.
What were the roles of men and women in Sumer? The men held political power and made laws, while women took care of the home and children.
What is cuneiform? Who developed it? Cuneiform was the world's first system of writing developed by the Sumerians.
What are pictographs? Early written communication that used picture symbols.
What is a scribe? A writer.
What are epics? Long poems that tell the stories of heroes.
What was the significance of the invention of the wheel? Sumerians were able to build wheeled vehicles, including carts and wagons. They also invented a device that spins clay called the potter's wheel.
How did Sumerians advance in math, science and medicine? In math, they developed a system based on the number 60. They divided the year into 12 months. As for science, they named thousands of animals, plants and minerals. In the medicine field, they invented healing drugs.
What is architecture? The science of building
What is a ziggurat? A pyramid shaped temple tower which rose above each city.
What is a monarch? A ruler of a kingdom or empire.
Who became Babylon's greater monarch? Hammurabi
What is Hammurabi's Code? It was a set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life.
What is a chariot? A wheeled, horse-drawn cart used in battle
Who was the most famous Chaldean king? Nebuchadnezzar
Who developed one of the world's first alphabets? The Phoenicians
What is an alphabet? A set of letters that can be combined to form words.
Fertile Crescent a large arc of rich or fertile farming land.
silt a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks
irrigation a way of supplying water to an area of land
canals human-made waterways
surplus more than needed
division of labor type of arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job
rural countryside areas
urban city areas
city-state consisted of a city and all the countryside around it
empire land with different territories and peoples under a single rule.
polytheism the worship of many gods
Priests people who performed religious ceremonies
social hierarchy the division of society based on social rank
pictographs picture symbols
scribe a writer
epic long poems that tell stories of heroes
architecture the science of a building
ziggurat a pyramid-shaped temple tower
monarch ruler of a kingdom or empire
Hammurabi's Code a set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life.
chariot a wheeled, horse-drawn cart used in battle
alphabet a set of letters that can be combined to form words
Created by: TMoar