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WC - Ch. 16 & 21

TermDefinition
Jiang Jieshi (also known as Chang kai-shek) Leader of Chinese Nationalists who was defeated by Mao Zedong's communist revolutionaries in 1949 and forced to flee to Taiwan where, with the support of the US, he became president of the Republic of China
Mao Zedong Leader of the Communist Party in China who overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists and became the founding father of the People's Republic of China where he ruled from 1949 until 1976
May Fourth Movement An early reform movement that occurred in China following massive student protests against Japan being given Germany's territorial rights in China (in the Treaty of Versailles). Goal of May Fourth Movement was to strengthen China by modernizing it
The Long March An epic retreat led by Mao Zedong in 1934 in which he and about 100,000 of his followers fled the Guomindang (Nationalists) and trekked over 6,000 miles to a remote region in northern China. There, Mao rebuilt his forces and plotted his next attack
Great Leap Forward Economic and social campaign led by Communist Mao Zedong from 1958-1961 who wanted to make a superhuman effort to increase industry and agriculture (collectivization/no private farming), but his effort failed – 3 million people died from famine
Four Modernizations An attempt made by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping to strengthen the sectors of agriculture, industry, technology and defense in China
Tiananmen Square Massacre An incident that occurred in June 1989, in which Chinese troops stormed through Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing (mainland China's capital city), killing and arresting thousands of pro-democracy students who were protesting for more freedoms
Deng Xiaoping Leader of China after Mao Zedong's death. He chose to make Communism less strictly enforced by including elements of capitalism. He also implemented the One-Child policy to control China's rapid population growth
Little Red Book A book containing Chinese leader Mao Zedong's speeches and writings about communism and other ideas
One-Child Policy A family planning policy implemented by Mao Zedong in China in 1979 to solve the problem of overpopulation by limiting Chinese couples to only one child. The policy began to be formally phased out in 2015
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Areas in China where foreigners can own/operate industries. Goal was to attract foreign investments and technology, provide employment, utilize Chinese and imported resources, and support capital formation by providing labor, land use, and tax incentives
Commune Community in which property is held in common, living quarters are shared, and physical needs are provided in exchange for work at assigned jobs
Nationalist Party (also known as the Guomindang) Political party that governed all or part of mainland China between 1928-1949 until they were defeated by Mao Zedong's communist forces. They subsequently ruled Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi and his successors
Rape of Nanking An episode of mass murder and brutality committed (from December 1937 to March 1938) by Japanese troops against soldiers and residents of Nanjing, the former capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War
People's Republic of China The government of China set up in 1949 after the victory of the communist forces of Mao Zedong. The People's Republic ruled the mainland of China, forcing the government of Nationalist China into exile on the island of Taiwan
Republic of China A government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Jiang Jieshi after being defeated by Communist Chinese leader Mao Zedong and his forces in the Chinese Civil War
Hirohito Last emperor of Japan from 1926-1989. He forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II
General Douglas McArthur US WW II General who was put in charge of putting Japan back together after the war. His goal for the military government in Japan was to punish the Japanese people, replace the emperor, and help set up a democratic government
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Total value of all goods and services produced by a nation
Diet Elected Japanese parliament
Pearl Harbor A surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, which led to the United States' entry into WW II
Zaibatsu Powerful banking and industrial families in Japan
Hiroshima Japanese city that was destroyed in WW II when, on August 6, 1945, an American airplane dropped the first atomic bomb ever used in warfare
Nagasaki Japanese city that was devastated by the second atomic bomb used in WW II (August 9, 1945 - 3 days after the first one was dropped on Hiroshima)
Created by: tmgilbert