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Chapter Twenty-One

TermDefinition
Industrial Revolution A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
Enclosure Movement A process in Europe from 1700s to the mid-1800s where landowners fenced small fields to create large farms, allowing for more efficient farming methods and increased the food supply
Factors of Production The basic resources for industrialization, such as land, labor, and capital
Cottage Industry A craft occupation performed in the home
Factory A place where goods are manufactured in mass quantity
Industrialization The process of changing to power-driven machinery
Jethro Tull Gentleman farmer who invented the seed drill for planting grain
Richard Arkwright Inventor who made steam engines faster and more efficient
James Watt British inventor who made steam engines faster and more efficient
Robert Fulton Developed and operated the steamship Clermont on the Hudson river
Labor Union Organizations representing workers' interests
Strike Work stoppages
Mass Production The system of manufacturing large numbers of identical items
Interchangeable Parts Identical machine-made parts
Assembly Line A mass-production process in which a product is moved forward through many work stations where workers perform specific tasks
Laissez-Faire The idea that government should not interfere in business
Adam Smith The leading advocate of laissez-faire economics
Thomas Malthus Thinker whose beliefs about poverty were used to justify low wages
Entrepreneur Someone who starts a business
Andrew Carnegie Industrialist who led the expansion of the American steel industry
Socialism The theory that society, not individuals, should own all property and industry
Karl Marx German thinker who put forth a radical view of socialism
Communism A system in which the government controls the economy
Standard of Living Level of material comfort experienced by a group of people
Created by: annaperrell