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AP HUG Models

AP Human Geography models flashcards. So..Basically covering AP HUG Models.

Core-Periphery Model A spatial metaphor that attempts to explain the relationship between the 'core' and the 'periphery'.
Peters Projection A projection named after a German historian named Arno Peters. In this projection, shape is distorted & longitude & latitude are replaced by a grid.
Mercator Projection This projection accurately represents the shape of landforms, but it does not have equal and correct size and most of these landforms are distorted. An example of one of the landforms that is distorted badly is Greenland. A.K.A. conformal projection.
Fuller Projection A.K.A. the Dymaxion Map has solved the problem of distortion of a global map on a flat map in a very unique way.
Goodes-Homosline Projection Is a interrupted, equal-area projection named after J. Paul Goode. Hint Homosline means equal-area.
Robinson Projection This projection is neither equal in area nor is it conformal. Instead Shape, Size, Distance, & Direction are distorted. Because of this it is a compromise projection.
Scale This has 2 different types. Map __ & __ of inquiry. The first one can be defined as the relationship between the actual measure of something in the real world & the distance of something on a map.
Isoline Map This shows lines that connect points with equal values, I.E. elevation levels.
Cartogram Shows particular variables using space on a map.
Dot Density Map Are a form of thematic maps. Uses equally sized dots for a given area.
Proportional Symbol Map Uses symbols (I.E. stars, circles, triangles, etc.) that shows a variety of frequency & the bigger symbol, the larger the amount in a region.
Chloropleth Map These maps show patterns with some variation in color or ways of shading, such as population density maps.
Malthus Population Catastrophe Is a prediction of a forced return to a acceptable level of population growth.
Neo-­Malthusians Ask regions not to exceed the carrying capacity of their region.
Boserup's Hypothesis of Population (anti-Malthusian) Stated that the way of avoiding over population is by increasing the number of subsistence farmers (what ever they are because m-w was absolutely no help).
Population Pyramid Components Age-sex distribution chart with males on the left side & females on the right side.
Population Pyramid Example Shapes (Part 1) For Stage 1 it is a pyramid that has expansive with concave sides, high birth & death rates, & a short life expectancy. Stage 2 has a pyramid that is expansive with straight sides, high birth rate, falling death rate, & slightly longer life expectancy.
Demographic Transition Model (DTM) This model has 4 demographic stages of transition patterns. The first stage is an agricultural subsistence economy & the last stage is an industrialized country. All through out there are population growths, death rates, & birth rates.
DTM Visual A visual showing the DTM.
Epidemiologic Transition Model (ETM) The patterns in this model are very similar to the DTM & in the earliest stages plagues spread because of poor medical technology, but in the older stages, those diseases come back with more strength.
ETM Visual A visual showing the ETM.
Gravity Model of Spatial Interaction When this model is applied to migration, the bigger towns, and places attract more migrants than smaller towns and places do. In addition, places that are farther away have a lesser pull effect than closer cities.
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration These laws were created by E.G. Ravenstein in the 19th century to outline & explain different patterns of migration & his laws state that certain push & pull factors impact migration. He also said that there are certain factors that influence to migrate.
Zelinsky Model of Migration Transition In this model, popular migration trends allign with the DTM & people start to move around more as their industries get more developed. Internal migration is more widely accepted in stage 2 & by stages 3 & 4 there is also international movement.
MTM Visual A visual showing the MTM.
Indo-European Language A language family that about 50% of all people speak. A language branch that is in this family is the Germanic branch, which has English included in it. Other major branches of this family are the Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic, and Romance branches.
Indo-European Language Diffusion Theories (Agriculture, Conquest) The Agriculture one argues that this diffusion was started at a farming community on the Danube river. The Conquest one argues that this diffusion started with the empire-constructing Kurgan culture located north of the Caspian sea in the Russian steppe.
Population Pyramid Example Shapes (Part 2) Stage 3 is a pyramid that is stationary with convex sides, declining birth rate, low death rate, & long life expectancy. Stage 4 is a contractive pyramid with convex sides, low birth & death rates, & longer life expectancies.



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