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Unit 9: Islam

TermDefinition
Abraham Father of Ishmael
Al-Ghazali Introduced a moderate form of Sufism that does't excuse Sufis from everyday practices
Ali Muhammad's son-in-law; Shi'ites believed he was Muhammad's successor; designated caliph in 650, but was an unfit leader and murdered
Day of Standing Together Day of intense prayer and soul-searching for those that made pilgrimage to Mecca
Dhimmis "People of the Book"; The people given protection and tolerance by Muslims, especially in the Muslim empire; Mostly Jews and Christians
Dome of the Rock Islamic shrine in Temple Mount in Jerusalem; First Islamic building ever built; location of the rock Abraham sacrificed Ishmael and where Muhammad ascended to heaven
Five Pillars The five expectations of every Muslim; 1) Shahadah 2) Five daily prayers 3) Zakat 4) Fasting 5)Hajj
Hadith Sayings and actions of Muhammad in the Qur'an
Hagar Mother of Ishmael & Servant of Abraham; Exiled into the wilderness with her son after the birth of Isaac
Hajj 5th pillar of Islam; pilgrimage to Mecca for every Muslim who is physically and financially able
Hijab The garment used to veil women for modesty
Hijrah Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina
Husayn Ali's son; attempted to gain the title of caliph after his father lost it; killed by Sunnis in 680
Imam Shi'ite: The political and spiritual leader that was given the knowledge of God Sunni: The leader of community prayers
Ishmael First son of Abraham by Hagar; Founder of the Arab people
Jihad "effort/struggle"; the internal struggle against personal obstacles between one and god; the external defense against Muslim oppression
Jinn Spiritual beings lower than angels; may be good or bad; based on indigenous fire spirits in the desert
Ka'ba Structure built by Abraham; around a rock said to have fallen in Adam's time; sacred structure in Mecca dedicated to the worship of one God
Khadijah Muhammad's wife
Kufr 2nd worst sin; ingratitude for God's blessing
Mecca Holy city; established by Ishmael & Hagar; birthplace of Muhammad
Medina The only city that accepted Muhammad; Led by Muhammad in a conquest of Islam
Mosque Place of worship; where Muslims meet on Fridays for prayer
Muhammad The final prophet; founder of Islam
Qur'an Holy text; "reading/reciting"; collection of Muhammad's revelations
Shahadah Confession of faith of Islam; "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger
Shariah "The Right Path"; Islamic law; Based on Qur'an and Sunnah of Muhammad
Shayk Center of Sufi orders; Person who has met with God in this lifetime; believed to transmit blessings and sacred power
Shi'a/Shi'ite Minority branch of Islam; believe Muhammad's successor was his son-in-law Ali
Shirk Worst sin; Associating anything with divinity except God
Sufism Mystical branch of Islam; focused on achieving union with God; meeting God face-to-face in life
Sunni Major branch of Islam; don't believe Muhammad has any successor, and caliphs are appointed for political leadership; focus on applying Shariah to every aspect of life
Ummah Community of Muslims
Zakat 3rd Pillar of Islam; alms giving; a Muslim must donate 2.5% of their wealth to the needy
Zam-zam well The source of water revealed to Hagar by an angel in her desperate search for water
Created by: deleted user
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