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Chapter Sixteen

TermDefinition
Caraval A light, fast sailing ship with a rubber and lateen sails
Henry the Navigator Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along African coast
Vasco da Gama Portuguese navigator, in 1497-1499, he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia
Ferdinand Magellan First explorer to attempt to circumnavigate the globe; while he was killed on the way, some of his sailors completed his journey
Circumnavigate Travel completely around the world
Sir Francis Drake English explorer, second man to circumnavigate the globe
Encomienda Spanish system in which a colonist received and Native American workers to whom he was required to teach Christianity
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer and conqueror of Mexico's Aztec empire
Conquistador Spanish term for conqueror; name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native peoples of the Americas
Moctezuma || Aztec emperor at the time of Cortes's conquest of Mexico
Fransisco Pizarro Conqueror of Inca Empire in Peru for the Spanish
Atahualpa Ruler of Inca Empire, killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro
Viceroys Officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies in the king's name
Bartlome de Las Casas Spanish priest who criticized treatment of Native Americans, suggesting that slaves from Africa be used as laborers instead
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal along an imaginary line
Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases due to contact between the peoples of Europe and the Americas
Mercantilism The European economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth in order to build a strong military and expand influence
Balance of Trade The amount of goods sold by a country against those purchased from other countries; a favorable balance of trade meant selling more good than were bought
Subsidies Grants of money given by governments for purposes such as helping people start new businesses
Capitalism Economic system in which private individuals rather than governments perform most of the economic activity, with the goal of making a profit
Joint-Stock Company A company in which investors buy shares of stock, receiving a portion of the profits, but only losing the amount of their investment if it failed
Plantations Estates in the Americas where cash crops were grown on a large scale
Triangular Trade Trading network that brought goods from Europe to Africa to be traded for slaves, took the slaves to the Americas to be sold, then brought American goods back to Europe
Middle Passage Name for the second leg of the triangle, bringing captive Africans to the Americas, where they will be sold as slaves
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote abut the horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passage voyages
African Diaspora The spread of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe as a result of the slave trade, eventually spreading African culture throughout the Western world
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the Northwest Passage and explored the river that is now named after him
Created by: annaperrell