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Other Diseases

Other obstructive respiratory diseases

QuestionAnswer
COPD is a group of diseases and problems which have what as an underlying theme? An increase in the resistance to flow of air in the respiratory system.
What are the diseases that can make up COPD? (Need 2 or more of these diseases to have COPD) Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and bronchial asthma.
COPD involves chronic inflammation accompanied by what? Narrowing of airways and destruction of alveolar walls.
COPD is the _____ leading cause of death, and most people who have it are ____________. 5th leading cause of death. Most (almost all) who have it are smokers.
Acute bronchitis is almost always (80%) a result of what? A viral infection (Flu, RSV, etc...) though bacteria can cause it too.
Hallmarks of acute bronchitis: (4) Inflammation of airways, capillaries get distended, mucus production increases, and epithelium gets damaged.
Treatment for acute bronchitis: Usually resolves itself (if it is viral). Bacterial can be treated with antibiotics, Viral bronchitis can lead to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in airway, even in acute cases.
What happens in bronchiectasis? Bronchi dilate and swell. This causes turbulent airflow and it also leads to stuff building up in the airways, including pulse.
Bronchiectasis is often called _____________ bronchi. Bulging.
Bronchiectasis leads to obstruction because of _____________. Turbulence (not constriction... dilation causes turbulence).
What type of people does bronchiectasis occur in? kids, especially as they've got really small, soft bronchi which makes them more susceptible to damage by infection, etc...
Repeated ______________ and ___________ are the main event in bronchiectasis, and this leads to what? Infections and inflammations. This leads to damage of the bronchiolar wall.
What happens to the epithelium during bronchiectasis? What about the lumen? Epithelium gets damaged and then it changes (metaplasia); immune cells accumulate in the lumen and form pus which obstructs flow.
What is bronchiolitis? Generalized inflammation of airways. This is the inflammation all throughout the bronchioles due to some kind of infectious agent.
What is the infectious agent that usually cause bronchiolitis? Respiratory syncytial virus. Other viruses can also cause it, or even bacteria, though.
What happens to the body during bronchiolitis once the infection has set in? Epithelium gets damaged and lost, and increased mucus production leads to obstruction and atelectasis and hyperinflation.
What is atelectasis? The collapse of alveolar structure.
What type of disease is cystic fibrosis? Genetic, autosomal recessive disorder. About 1 in 3,000 white births. One in 25 white people are carriers.
Cystic Fibrosis is usually found in people of what descent? Scandenavians.
What are the main respiratory features of cystic fibrosis? Thick viscous mucus in the airways and lots of pus.
What is the main issue in cystic fibrosis? Individuals are not able to secrete water like you are supposed to (and sometimes excrete).
The main defect in cystic fibrosis is the production of a protein involved in fluid secretion, the ________________. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein.
What is the CFTR protein. This protein is a chloride ion channel that is normally expressed in the plasma membrane in exocrine gland cells.
Defects in the CFTR protein cause problems with _____________. Fluid secretion/salt reabsorption in this tissues.
What is broken in cystic fibrosis? Chloride channel.
What are cystic fibrosis effects in the lungs? CF effects in the lungs include a lot of really viscous mucus. Also, lots of broken down neutrophils, which results in a lot of extracellular DNA, which is very snotty/sticky.
The viscous mucus and DNA in individuals with CF causes what? Leads to obstruction, atelectasis and hyperinflation.
How do you know if your bambino has CF? Baby skin tastes salty.
People with CF almost always die of what? Lung infections. Mucous doesn't get lifted up from airways and lungs.
Treatment for CF? (it sucks) vibration vest? inhale wet stuff. humidors. DNAse is given to break up DNA.
What is epiglottitis? Infection of the epiglottis (tissue surrounding the glottis), usually by a bacterium. (Heamophilus influenzae).
What does epiglottitis result in? Inflammation and at least some swelling and airway obstruction. If bad enough (progresses quickly), this is an emergent situation requiring intubation or tracheotomy. Abx can then be used to treat the cause.
Created by: sam_melillo