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Medical Ch.4

Medical terms

QuestionAnswer
superior above or upward toward the head
inferior below or downward toward the tail or feet
cranial pertaning to the head
caudal pertaning to the tail
distal away from or farthest from the trunk of the body, or farthest from the point of orgin of a body part
proximal toward or nearest to the trunk of the body or nearest to the point of origin of a body part
supine lying horizontally on the back, faceup
prone lying facedown on the abdomen
supination a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward
pronation a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn downward and backward
plantar pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot
dorsum the back or posterior surface of a part, in the foot, the top of the foot
connective tissue tissue that supports and binds other body tissue and parts
cranial pertaining to the skull or cranium
cranial cavity the cavity that contains the brain
cytology the study of cells
genes segements of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characterisitics
frontal plane any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and divding the body into front and back portions
epithelial tissue the tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body, it also lines the vessels, body caviities, glands, and body organs
dysplasia any abnormal development of tissues or organs
dorsum the back or posterior surface of a part, in the foot, the top of the foot
deep away from the surface and toward the inside of the body
distal away from or farthest from the trunk of the body, or farthest from the point of origin of a body part
cytoplasm a gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. Contains cell organs, called organelles, which carry out the essential functions of the cell
coocyx the tailbone
chromosomes the threadlike structures wihtin the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body
cervical vertebrae the first seven segements of the spinal column, C1 through C7
cell the smalledt and most numerous structual unit of living matter
cell membrane the semipermeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell
caudal pertaining to the tail
cardiac muscle the mucle that makes up thr muscular wall of the herart
aplasia a development failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue
anterior pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body
anatomical postion the standard reference postion for the body as a whole, the person is standing wiht arms at the sides and palms turned forward, the individual's head and feet are also pointing toward
anaplasia a change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentation and reversion to a more primitive form
abdominopelvic cavity a term that describes the abdominal and pelvic cavity collectively, refers to the space between the diaphragm and the groin
abdominal cavity the cavity between the thoriac cavity that is separted from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm,
organ tissues arranged together to perform a special function
pelvic cavity the lower front cavity of the body
nucleus the central controlling body within a living cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane
nervous tissue tissue that trasmits impulses throughout the body, thereby activating, coordinating and controlling the many functions of the bpdy
navel the umbilicus, the belly button
neoplasia the new and abdnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant
muscle tissue the tissue capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers
munro's point a point on the left side of the abdomen, about halfway between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hips
mitochondria cell organs(or organelles)which provide the energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions
midsagittal plane the plane that divides the body (or a structure)into right and left equal portions
midline of the body the imaginary "line" created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves
membrane a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, ordivides a space-such as the abdominal membrane that lines the abdominal wall
mediolateral pertaining to the middle and side of a structure
medial toward the midline of thebody
McBurney;s Point a point on the right side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
lysosmes cell organs that contain various types of enzymes that function in intracelluar digestion. Lysosomes destroy basteria by digesting them,
lumbar vertebrae the largest and strongest of the vertebrae of the spinal column
lumbar region the right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen
lateral toward the side of the body, away from the midline of the body
inferior below or downward toward the tail or feet
inguinal region the right and left regions of the lower section of the abdomen, also called the iliac region
hypoplasia incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells
hypogastric region the middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region
hypochondriac region the right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs, located on either side of the epigastric region
hyperplasia an increase in the number of cells of a body part
histologist a medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues
plane imaginary slices(or cuts)made through the body as if a dividing sheet were passed through the body at a particular angle nad in a particluar direction, permitting a view from a differnt angle
pertioneum a specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdnominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
superior above of upward toward the head
superfical pertaining to the surface of the body or near the surface
spinal cavity the cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord, also known as the spinal canal
smooth muscle muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines
skeletal muscle muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skelton
sacrum the singular traingular shaped bone that results from the fusion of the five indivdual sacral bones of the child
ribosomes cell organs that synthesize protiens, often called the cell's "protein factories"
posterior pertaining to the back of the body
visceral muscle muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines
visceral pertaining to the internal organs
ventral pertaining to the front, belly side
umbilicus the naval, also called the belly button
umbilical region the region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen between the right an dleft lumbar regions and directly beneath the epigastric region
tissue a group of cells that performs specialized functions
transverse plane any of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes, dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior(lower)portions
thoracic vertebrae the second segement of 12 vertebrae that make up the vertebral bones of the chest, identified as T1 through T12
system organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole
thoracic cavity the chest cavity
Fowler's sitting up
semi fowler's leaning back
supine most common surgical postion
coronal divides the body structures into anterior posterior postions
lithomy common postion for gynecological procdures
Created by: Courtneey