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AP HUG unit 1 vocab

place a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
built landscape the built landscape is represented by those features and patterns reflecting human occupations and use of natural resources
sequent occupance the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contribution to the cumulative cultural landscape. this is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how human interact with their surroundings.
cultural landscape a combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation
density the frequency with which something occurs in space
arithmetic density total number of objects in an area- used to compare distribution of population in different countries
physiological density number of people per unit of area suitable for agriculture
diffusion the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.
hearth the place from which innovation originates
relocation diffusion spread of an idea through physical movement from one place to another
expansion diffusion the spread of an idea from one place to another in a snowballing process
hierarchical diffusion spread of an idea from nodes/people of authority to other people/places
contagious diffusion rapid, widespread diffusions of a characteristic throughout a region
stimulus diffusion spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
direction information contained in the relative position of one point with respect to another point without the distance information.
distance the measurement of the physical space between places
absolute distance exact measurement of physical space between two places.
distribution the arrangement of something across earth's surface
environmental determinism a nineteenth - and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences.
location the position that something occupies on earth's surface
absolute location The exact position of an object or place, measured within some other place
relative location Position on Earth’s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is west of 394).
site physical character of a place
situation is the location of a place relative to other places
place name a toponym is the name given to a place on earth
patterns the geometric arrangements of objects in space
possibilism the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
regions an area distinguished by a unique combination of features or trends
formal/uniform regions an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
functional/nodal regions an area organized around a node of focal point
perceptual/vernacular regions a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
scale refers to the relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on earth
spatial interaction when places are connected to each other through a network, geographers say there is a spatial interaction between them
accessibility the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach certain location from other locations. accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured
connectivity the relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. geographers are concerned with the various means by which connections occur
network chains of communication that connect people
distance decay contact between two groups diminishing with increasing distance and eventually disappearing
friction of distance is bases on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort. interactions will tend to take place more often over shorter distances; quantity of interaction will decline with distance.
time-space compression the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place
GIS (geographic information system)- a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data
GPS a system that accurately finds precise position of something on earth
north pole/ south pole north- 90 degrees north latitude south- 90 degrees south latitude
latitudes numbering system that indicates the location of a parallel
parallel a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
equator 0 degrees latitude
longitude numbering system that identifies the location of each meridian on earth's surface
meridian is an arc drawn between the north and south poles
international date line for the most part follows the 180 degree longitude- turn the clock back 24 hours if heading east, ahead 24 hours if heading west when crossing it.
thematic maps A type of map that displays one or more variables -such as population or income level - within a specific area
cartogram A type of thematic map that transforms such space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
dot maps Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents or births.
choropleth maps A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
isoline maps Map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
mental maps an internal representation of earths surface
map scale presented in three ways: fraction (1/24,000), ratio (1:24,000), or written ("1 inch equals 1 mile")
models A simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify casual relationships and to help geographers explain patterms , make decisions and predict future behaviors
projection the scientific method of transferring locations on earths surface to a flat map
remote sensing the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting earth or from other long-distance methods

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