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WH Wynn Midterm IRMA

What do Hinduism and Buddhism have a common belief in? Reincarnation and non-violence
What was the underlying objective of the Chinese philosophies of Confucius, Laozi, and the Legalists? Restore order, harmony, and respect for authority
What achievements are the Romans most known for? ELLA: Engineering, Language, Law, Art & Architecture
What was the earliest system of laws ever recorded? Hammurabi’s Code
What writing system was developed by the Sumerians? Cuneiform
What factors caused the Roman empire to fall apart? A widening gap between rich and poor, invaders, a bad economy, and splitting up the empire
What kind of government was Greece forced to use based on the geography of their land? City-states
What was the main method of Buddhism’s spread across Asia? Trade
What type of government rule is based on religious authority? theocracy
What was the main reason that the Phoenicians needed a phonetic alphabet? To record trade transactions
What cultures did Alexander the Great blend together to form the Hellenistic culture? PIGE: Persian, Indian, Greek, Egyptian
Why was the Silk Road important to China? It connected China to other cultures through trade.
For what achievements were the Phoenicians most well-known? Alphabet, sea trade, shipbuilding
What did Egyptians believe about the Pharaoh? They saw him as a god-king.
What reforms did Augustus make when he became Caesar? Stabilized the frontier, created a civil service system, and built up the city of Rome
What is a republic? A type of government where citizens choose their officials
What made Christianity such a popular religion during Roman times? The promise of eternal life, salvation open to all, one-on-one relationship with God and an excellent Roman road system that helped it spread throughout the empire.
What do Hinduism and Buddhism believe about the caste system? Hinduism = in favor; Buddhism = against
Why were the Gupta Empire in India and the Age of Pericles in Athens known as Golden Ages? Many advancements made in mathematics, sciences, arts, and literature
List the 5 Pillars of Islam. Pray 5x a day; fast during month of Ramadan; make a declaration of faith; give charity; make a pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
What beliefs did the Catholic Church re-affirm at the Council of Trent? Achieve salvation through faith AND good works; The Bible is not the ONLY source of Christian truth; Set up schools to educate clergy to challenge Protestants; Indulgences are valid expressions of faith
What were the main teachings of Martin Luther? Salvation by faith alone; Priesthood of all believers; The Bible is the only source of religious truth.
According to Muslims, who is Muhammad? He was the last and greatest of prophets.
What teachings do Islam, Christianity, and Judaism have in common? All are monotheistic and teach that there is life after death
What do Sunni and Shi’a Muslims disagree about? Who would be caliph (leader). Shias say the caliph should be descended from Muhammad. Sunnis say the caliph could be any pious male Muslim.
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? Its location was good for trade and contact with Muslims who had preserved Greek and Roman knowledge
What was the chief goal of the Crusades? For Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
What was one negative effect of the Crusades? A lasting hatred between some Christians and Muslims.
What is Ibn Sina known for developing? A medical encyclopedia
Why was Leonardo da Vinci considered the ultimate Renaissance man? He excelled at many fields: art, sculpture, botany, engineering, human anatomy
What two ancient cultures did Humanists focus their work on? Greeks and Romans
Who was the leading family of Florence who were patrons of the arts? Medici family
What was the major teaching of John Calvin? predestination
How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation? They had their own reformation - Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation.
What was the role of the Jesuits in the Counter Reformation? Combat heresy and spread Catholicism around the world
What were the effects of the invention of the printing press? More books were made, books became cheaper, literacy rates increase, people gain access to knowledge, causes religious conflict of the 1500s
What were three goals of 15th century European exploration? 3 Gs: God, Gold and Glory
What were key technological advancements that enabled overseas voyages of extended length? Development of better maps, astrolabes, caravel ship, triangular sails
Who was the Chinese explorer that led seven overseas voyages of exploration? Zheng He
Which explorer is credited with opening up trade between Europe and the Americas? Christopher Columbus
Who was the first explorer to circumnavigate the world? Ferdinand Magellan
What was the Columbian Exchange? The exchange of plants, animals, humans, and diseases between the Americas and Europe.
How did the introduction of crops from the Americas impact Europe? The new crops helped improve nutrition in Europe which led to a population boom.
What is the name of the economic policy where nations tried to build up their supply of gold and silver by obtaining colonies? Mercantilism
What was the role of Elizabeth I in the Reformation? She brought Catholics and Protestants together to create the Anglican Church in England.
Created by: Ms.Wynn