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Muslim Civilization

The Rise of Islam

What made Muhammad the last prophet? At about the age of 40, Muhammad believed the voice of the angel Gabriel, called to him while he was meditating in a cave outside Mecca. Gabriel brought a meassage from Allah.
How was the hijrah a great turning point for Islam? Muhammad attracted many devoted followers from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina). While in Medina, he was a respected political, religious, and military leader.
What did Muhammad accomplish before he died? He destroyed the idols in the Ka'aba and had the call to prayer made from its roof. Most Meccans pledged their loyalty to Muhammad and many converted to Islam. They joined the umma, or Muslim religious community by doing so.
How do the Five Pillars affect Muslim daily life? Muslims are forbidden to eat pork or drink intoxicating beverages. Communal worship is set for Friday afternoons.
How do Muslims still live by the teachings of Muhammad? After Muhammad's death, it was suggested that his revelations be kept in a book. This book was called the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims.
Who were the "rightly guided" caliphs and why were they called this? Caliphs Abu-Bakr, Uthman, Umar and Ali had all known Muhammad. They were known as the "Rightly guided" caliphs because they used the Qu'ran and Muhammad's actions as guides to leadership.
What were the reasons for the success of spreading Islam? The Muslim army was disciplined and expertly commanded. The Byzantine and Sassanid armies were both weak militarily. People of both Byzantine ans Sassanid faced persecution is they didn't support the official religions.
How were Muslims divided when the Umayyads rose to power? In interest of peace, most Muslims accepted the Umayyads' rule. Shi'ites believed the caliph needed to be a descendant of Muhammad. Sunni did not outwardly resist the rule of the Umayyads. Sufi pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path.
What did the Abbasids do to solidify power? To solidify power, the Abbasids moved the capital in 762 to the newly created city of Baghdad, in central Iraq. The location on key trade routes gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and information about the far-flung empire.
What was done to encourage the flow of trade? To encourage the flow of trade, Muslim money changers set up banks in cities throughout the empire. Banks offered letters of credit called sakks, to merchants. Sakks from Baghdad could be exchanged for cash at a bank in any other city in the empire.
How and why did some philosophers face criticism? In the 1100's Muslim philosopher, Ibn Rushd, who lived in Cordoba, was criticized for trying to blend Aristotle and Plato's views with those of Islam. However, Ibn Rushd argued that Greek philosophy and Islam had the same goal: to find the truth. Moses
How did medical advances benefit Muslim society? He wrote an encyclopedia called the Comprehensive Book that drew knowledge from Greek, Arabic, Syrian, and Indian sources as well as from his own experience. Al-Razi also wrote Treatise on Smallpox and Measles, which was translated into several languages
How was Muslim architecture unique? The greatest blending of Muslim culture is in architecture. A building reflected the culture of the people in the area to some extent. For example, the great mosque of Damascus was built on the site of a Christian Church. The huge dome and vaulted ceil
Why did Muslims support the advancement of science? Muslims had several practical reasons for supporting the advancement of science. Rulers wanted qualified physicians treating their ills. The faithful throughout the empire relied on mathematicians and astronomers to calculate the times for prayer and t
What were the four social classes of Islam? The upper class included those were Muslims at birth. Converts to Islam were in the second class. The third class consisted of the "protected people" and included the Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians. The lowest class was composed of slaves.
Created by: asmith22