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WH 10: Unit 5

French Revolution & Latin American Revolutions

French Revolution Period of time in which the French people rose up and overthrew Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette
Enlightenment ideas Ideas that helped inspire the people and taught them about the possibility that a government could protect the natural rights of the people, involve a separation of powers and checks and balances, and that corrupt governments need to be overthrown
American Revolution Where the U.S. colonies fought for their independence against Great Britain. Also a cause of the French Revolution because it put France in debt and allowed the Americans to get the Enlightenment ideas & rights that the French people craved
Louis XVI King of France during the French Revolution. He was a weak leader who didn't know how to fix the problems of France. Ultimately he was tried, found guilty of treason, and executed publicly.
Estate system The class system in France with three classes known as the First, Second, and Third Estate.
First Estate Was made up of the clergy, they paid no taxes and made up 1% of the French population.
Second Estate Was made up of the nobles (nobility), they paid no taxes, and made up 1% of the French population. Most of them lived for free at the Palace of Versailles.
Third Estate Was the other 98% of the French population. This class paid up to 50% of their taxes and thought the whole system was unjust and unfair. This estate is the group that will begin the French Revolution
Inflation When prices rise and yet the value of your money stays the same. It happened in France during the French Revolution. It made it impossible for the people of France to buy their basic necessities and is a cause of the French Revolution.
Marie Antoinette The Queen of France during the French Revolution. She was hated because she was Austrian, she spent too much money on things like castles, parties, and dresses and also had a gambling problem.
Estates-General A meeting with representatives from all three estates is called by Louis XVI to fix France's problems. The issue is that they can't discuss the problems because they can't even agree on how to count the votes. The meeting breaks down and fails.
National Assembly When the third estate breaks away at the estates-general meeting they decide that they the third-estate are in charge of France not Louis XVI. They declare themselves the government of France.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen The French version of the Declaration of Independence. The French new government the National Assembly writes this document that outlines the rights that all French men have and this document uses the Enlightenment ideas.
Storming of the Bastille The French want weapons and gunpowder to protect themselves in case the king attempts to attack them. The French people storm into the French prison and when they can't find weapons they kill the King's guards & is the first violence of the revolution.
July 14, 1789 The date when the French storm the Bastille. Marks the official beginning of bloodshed during the French Revolution. This chaos will last until 1799, ten years of struggle.
Guillotine The most common way of executing someone during the French Revolution was with the guillotine. The guillotine severes a prisoner's head from their body.
Maximilien Robespierre The man in charge of the Committee for Public Safety and the is in charge during the Reign of Terror. He encourages France to execute 50,000 people for being "enemies of the Revolution". Eventually the people execute him.
Committee for Public Safety The committee in France that sentenced approximately 50,000 people to die during the French Revolution. It was run by Maximilien Robespierre
Reign of Terror Name for the period of time during the French Revolution when 50,000 people were executed for being "enemies of the revolution" and was led by Maximilien Robespierre.
Napoleon Bonaparte French military general who claims that he can fix France. After 10 years of chaos people are willing to listen and trust him. He overthrows the French government and will put in place a military dictatorship.
Coup d'etat Forceful overthrow of a government using military force.
Secularism One of the legacies of the French Revolution that means distance from religion.
Nationalism One of the legacies of the French Revolution that means loyalty to your country rather than to your king.
Democratic Ideas The French people wanted a say in their government and pushed for the inclusion of democratic and Enlightenment ideas.
Romanticism New forms of art and literature that emerged during the time of the French and Latin American Revolutions. Romanticism emphasized emotion, individuality, nationalism, and the environment.
Novel Long story with plot, characters, and dialogue
Miguel de Cervantes Author of the first novel during the Enlightenment
Don Quixote The first novel written by Miguel de Cervantes during the Enlightenment
Eugene Delacroix Famous painter during the Romantic era whose most famous work is known as: Liberty Leading the People
Encomienda Economic and social system based on race that was put in place by the Spanish governments in different countries in Central and South America.
Viceroys Colonial governors, basically the highest position in a Spanish colony. These people were in charge of laws and reported news back to Spain. People could only be viceroys if they were peninsulares
Peninsulares You were a peninsulare if both of your parents were European and you as their child were born in Europe. Considered the most pure. Often very wealthy and they were the only ones who could become Viceroys.
Creoles You were a creole if both of your parents were European but you as their child were born in either Central or South America. This group was often wealthy and well educated but was always jealous of the peninsulares
Mestizos You were mestizo if one of your parents was European and the other was a Native American/American Indian/Native to Central or South America and you as their child were born in either Central or South America.
Mulatto You were mulatto if one of your parents was European and the other was a slave and you as their child were born in either Central or South America.
Slaves If both parents were slaves and you were born in Central or South America then you would be born a "slave"
Native Americans If both parents were Native Americans and you were born in Central or South America.
Toussaint L'Ouverture Former slave who helped Haiti gain their independence from the French and then helped the island end the practice of slavery.
Miguel Hidalgo A Catholic priest who helped start the movement for independence in Mexico. He was killed in the fighting but he is known as the "Father of the Nation" in Mexico because of his work.
Jose de san Martin Helped lead the revolution for independence in the southernmost regions of South America such as: Chile and Argentina
Simon Bolivar Helped lead the revolution for independence in the northernmost regions of South America such as: Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, etc.
Monroe Doctrine United States would not tolerate any European nations interfering in the Western Hemisphere, which included the Latin and South American colonies who had just gained their independence from Europe
Created by: thompsonce