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Ch 21 Vocab

Geocentric Earth-center; a system of planetary motion in which the sun, moon, and other planets revolve around the Earth
Heliocentric Sun-center; the system of the universe in which the Earth and planets revolve around the sun
Universal Law of Gravitation One of Newton's three rules of motion; it explains that planetary bodies continue in elliptical orbits around the sun because every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
Rationalism A system of thought expounded be Rene Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
Scientific Method A systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence that was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world
Inductive Reasoning The doctrine that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses or theories, a process that will lead to correct general principles
Empiricism The theory that says knowledge is achieved through observation
Philosophe French for "philosopher"; applied to all intellectuals during Enlightenment
Separation of Powers A form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
Deism A eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
Laissez-faire The concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone
Social Contract The concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide by it since it represents what is best for the entire community
Salons The elegant urban drawing rooms where, in the eighteenth century, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officially and wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophe
Rococo An artistic style that replaced the Baroque in the 1730s it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm, and gentle action
Enlightened Abolutionism A system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightened principles while maintaining their full royal powers
Successors One that follows, especially one who takes over a throne , title, estate, or office
Popular Sovereignity The right to govern through the consent of the people
Federal System A form of government in which power is shared between the national and state governments
The Leviathan Written by Thomas Hobbes in 1651
John Locke An English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism
Ptolemy's Model A geocentric model of the solar system
Copernicus A renaissance and reformation-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe
Galileo An Italian polymath
Isaac Newton English mathematician , an astronomer, and physicist who is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientist revolution
Blaise Pascal A French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian
Robert Boyle An Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland
Rene Descartes A French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist
Enlightenment An intellectual and philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century
Scientific Revolution A concept used by historians to describe the emergence of modern science during the early modern period
Montesquieu A French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the age of Enlightenment
Diderot A French philosopher, art critic, and writer
Voltaire Was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher
Encyclopedia A book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically
Adam Smith A Scottish economist, philosopher, and author
The Wealth of Nations written by Adam Smith in March 9, 1776
Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Francophone Genevan philosopher writer, and composer of the 18th century
Mary Wollstonecraft An English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights
Mozart A prolific and influential composer of the Classical Era
Catherine the Great Was empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796
Cossack A group of East-Slavic people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities
The Seven Years' War A global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763
Treaty of Paris 1783
Thomas Paine An English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorists, and revolutionary
Common Sense written by Thomas Paine in 1776
Declaration of Independence The statement adopted by the second continental congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4,1776
Thomas Jefferson An American Founding Father who was the principle author of the Declaration of Independence
Yorktown 9/28/1781---10/19/1781 Marked a decisive American and French victory
Kepler A German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer
Created by: Wallaby