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Ancient Rome

Why did Rome go to war with Carthage? How long did the Punic Wars last? Rome had access to lands in the Mediterranean Sea because of its location that they often traded with. Carthage started to interfere with this system of trade so Rome and Carthage went to war. The Punic Wars lasted from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C.
What were the jobs of each group in the Roman Republican government? The consuls commanded the army and directed the government. The senate influenced over both foreign and domestic policy. The assemblies elected tribunes and made laws for the whole republic.
How did Rome's victory help it further expand its republic after the Punic Wars? The Romans gained dominance over the whole western Mediterranean. The Carthaginians could no longer interfere with that route of trade. By 70 B.C., Rome's Mediterranean Empire stretched from Anatolia in the east to Spain in the West.
How did the creation of the Twelve Tables lead to Rome becoming a republic? The Twelve Tables established the idea that all citizens, rich or poor , had the right to be protected by law. This led to the idea of having more fairness in the government when it came to power.
Who served in the Roman army? All landowning citizens had to serve in the Roman army. Seekers of certain public offices had to serve ten years in the military.
What reforms did Julius Caesar add to the Roman government? Caesar helped the poor by creating jobs, especially though construction of new public buildings. He started colonies where people without land could own property and increased pay for soldiers. He also granted many people in the provinces citizenship.
Why was Augustus Rome's most "able" ruler? Augustus stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome with splendid public buildings, and create a system of government that survived for centuries. He set up a civil service. He paid workers to manage the affairs of government.
How did the military contribute to the fall of the Roman Republic? Generals began seizing greater power for themselves. They recruited soldiers from the landless poor and promised them land. These soldiers fought for pay and owed allegiance to only their commander.
How did estates effect small farmers? Small farmers found it hard to compete with these estates. Many of these farmers were former soldiers. Many of them had to sell their lands to wealthy landowners and ended up homeless and jobless.
How was the gap between the rich and poor widening? The rich spent large sums of money on homes, slaves, gardens, and luxuries. Most people in Rome barely had the necessities of life and crowded into rickety old tenements, where fire was a constant danger.
How did Jesus impact the lives of Christians? Jesus' taught the principles of the Ten Commandments and expressed the importance of loving god, your neighbors, your enemies, and even yourself. Jesus also taught that there would be an eternal kingdom for people who overcame and regretted their sins.
How did Christianity spread throughout Rome and the rest of Europe? Paul wrote Epistles, or influential letters to groups of believers. Paul stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people's sins in his teaching. Constantine declared Christianity as one of the religions approved by the emperor.
Why was Jesus crucified? Jesus' popularity concerned Roman leaders. When Jesus visited Jerusalem in A.D. 29, crowds of people greeted him as the Messiah or king. Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor, accused Jesus of defying the authority of Rome.
How did the Pax Romana make it easier to spread Christianity? The Pax Romana provided the ideal conditions for Christianity to spread, since it made the travel and exchange of ideas fairly safe. Common languages such as Latin and Greek allowed the message to be understood easily.
How were Christians persecuted? Christians were exiled, imprisoned, or executed for refusing to worship Roman deities. Thousands of Christians were crucified, burned, or killed by wild animals in circus arenas.
Why did the Germans invade Rome? Germanic people were envious of Rome's reign over their huge empire and wanted to ruin all this power that Rome had. They also pushed into Roman lands in an effort to escape from the Huns.
Who was Attila? Attila was a powerful chieftain, who led the Huns. Attila terrorized both halves of the empire with 100,000 soldiers.
Why did Constantine move the capital? The new capital was strategically located for trade and defense purposes on a crossroads between the West and East.
Why didn't Attila's soldiers take Rome? Attila's soldiers advanced to Rome in A.D. 452, but didn't take the city due to the famine and disease.
What happened to the eastern half of the empire after the Roman empire fell? The eastern half would eventually be called the Byzantine Empire and it was thriving. It preserved Greek and Roman culture for another 1,000 years. The Byzantine emperors ruled from Constantinople and claimed Augustus Caesar's power.
What languages did Latin influence? Latin was taken by different people and made into other languages such as French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian. These languages are known as the Romance languages because of their Roman heritage.
What were some great achievements in Roman architecture? The arch, dome, and concrete were combined to make great structures, such as the Colosseum. Arches were also used for supporting bridges and aqueducts. Roads built of stone, concrete, and sand, were all connected to Rome and all parts of the empire.
What were some of the most important principles of Roman law? All persons had the right to equal treatment under law. A person was considered innocent until proven guilty. A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts. Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
What was the focus of Roman law? Roman law was the most lasting and widespread contribution. Early Roman law was focused on strengthening the rights of the Roman citizens. As the empire grew, people came to believe that laws should be fair and apply to everyone, rich or poor.
How was Roman art unique? Much of Roman art was practical and used for public educational purposes. Roman artists developed a new type of sculpture called bas-relief. Bas-relief was used to tell stories and to represent crowds of people, soldiers in battle, and landscapes.
Created by: asmith22