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Chapter Fourteen

Crusades A series of wars carried out by European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land from their Muslim rulers.
Holy Land Region that included Jerusalem and the area around it, considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Pope Urban || Roman Catholic pope from 1088 to 1099; he called on Christians to launch the first crusade.
Saladin Muslim sultan and hero; he campaigned to drive the Christians from the Holy Land. He stopped an army of crusaders under Richard the Lion-Hearted of England.
Richard the Lion-Hearted King of England from 1189 - 1199; he fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the Third Crusade. He eventually ceased fighting and returned to England.
Hanseatic League An organization of north-German cities and towns that organized and controlled trade throughout northern Europe from the 1200s through the 1400s.
Credit An arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time.
Guilds Associations of people who worked at the same craft or trade during the Middle Ages.
Apprentice A person who learns a skill under a master of the trade.
Journeyman A skilled worker who was paid wages by the master of a guild.
Gothic A style of church architecture developed during the 1100s characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses.
Flying Buttress An arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls.
Illumination The process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs.
Hildegard of Bingen Medieval nun and author; she wrote dozens of poems and music to accompany them.
Troubadours Traveling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey Chaucer English poet; he wrote The Canterbury Tales, 23 stories of pilgrims assembled at the Tabard Inn in Southwark.
Dante Alighieri Italian poet and humanist; he was the author of The Divine Comedy, one of the greatest literary classics.
Thomas Aquinas Italian philosopher and theologian; he argued that rational thought could be used to support Roman Catholic belief.
Scholasticism In the Middle Ages, the theological and philosophical school of thought that attempted to reconcile faith and reason.
Heresy An opinion that goes against the teachings of the church.
Inquisitions Institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics; especially active in Spain in the later 1400s and 1500s.
Friars Members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders; first prominent in the Europe of the late Middle Ages; unlike monks, friars preached in towns.
Hundred Years' War War fought between France and England for control of the French throne.
Joan of Arc French soldier and national heroine; she rallied the French troops during the Hundred Years' War and was burned at the stake for heresy.
Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) Civil war for the English crown between the York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) families.
Henry V|| King of England; he was the first king from the house of Tudor; his defeat of Richard ||| and is assumption of the throne marked the end of the Wars of the Roses and the beginning of a new era in England's history.
Black Death A terrible outbreak of bubonic plague that swept through Europe, beginning in 1347.
Created by: annaperrell