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A&P Ch 18 HW

Anatomy and Physiology 2020 with Ahmed Badr

The red pigmented protein in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide is called? hemoglobin
There are ____ homeostatic mechanisms 3
1st of the homeostatic mechanisms is ____ spasm that constrict the broken blood vessel, reducing hemorrhage vascular
In platelet plug formation, a large mass of platelets ____ and undergo degranulation aggregate
_____ finishes the process of the 3 homeostatic mechanisms by clotting the bloodand protecting the body from excess blood loss Coagulation
When a blood vessel is injured, the first phase in homeostasis to occur is _______. This limits the amount of blood that can leak from this damaged vessel. vascular spasm
Vascular spasm continues during the next phase, as both ____ and the _____ of the blood vessel wall release an array of chemicals to further stimulate this process. platelets and endothelial cells
Vascular spasm usually lasts _______. The more extensive the vessel and tissue damage, the greater the degree of ______ - from a few to many minutes - vasoconstriction
Platelets are sometimes called _______ thrombocytes
Platelets are continually produced in the _____ by _____. - red bone marrow - megakaryocytes
Normally, the concentration of platelets in an adult ranges from ______, although the count may rise further during times of stress. 150,000 to 400,000
Platelets can circulate in the blood for 8 to 10 days, unless they are needed earlier for blood clotting. An abnormally small number of platelets in circulating blood is termed ______. thrombocytopenia
When blood loss is severe, the ____ nervous system helps maintain blood pressure and divert blood to where it is needed most sympathetic
Coagulation - the last stage in hemostasis - involves the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
-The second stage in homeostasis - Involves degranulation and serotonin, thromboxane A2, and ADP Platelet Plug Formation
What phase in the homeostatic mechanisms involves vasoconstriction? vascular spasm
The percentage of volume of ______ in the blood is called the hematocrit. This MEDICAL dictionary definition of the true hematocrit differs slightly from clinical definition, which equates the hematocrit to the percentage of _____ - all formed element - only erythrocytes
Hematocrin values vary somewhat and are dependent upon the age and sex of the individual. Adult males then to have a hematocrit ranging between __(1)__, whereas adult females' hematocrin range from __(2)__. 1. 42% and 56% 2. 38% to 46%
Males have a __(1)___ hematocrit because __(2)__ stimulates the kidney to produce the hormone __(3)__, which promotes erythrocyte production 1. higher 2. testosterone 2. erythropoietin
Platelets, red blood cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes, are all ____ formed elements
Nutrients, vitamins, hormones, and gases are all ___ part of the plasma
Protein that maintains osmotic pressure albumin
transports lipids alpha and beta globulin
a type of antibody for defense Gamma Globulin
Helps with blood clotting Fibrinogen
Used and produced during cellular respiration Plasma Gases
Vitamins, lipids, sugars, amino acids transported to cells for use in metabolic processes Plasma nutrients
Waste produced in metabolism and amino acids Nonprotein nitrogenous substances
Blood contains numerous __(1)__ red blood cells in a featureless matrix, called __(2)__ 1. biconcave 2. plasma
The numerous red cells are also called ____. These cells are unique because they lack nuclei. erythrocytes
There are smaller numbers of larger white cells with large, multilobed nuclei called ____, or white blood cells leukocytes
Blood is located within the _____ system where it functions in the transport of nutrients, gases, wastes, and other biologically relevant molecules. cardiovascular
Regarding the function of platelets They secrete procoagulants, or clotting factors, which promote blood clotting
Homopoiesis occurs in ____ of certain bones. red bone marros
The process of hemopoiesis starts with homopoietic stem cells called ____. They produce 2 different lines for blood cell development. hemocytoblasts
The _____ forms erythrocytes, all leukocytes except lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes. myeloid line
the ____ forms only lymphocytes. lymphoid line
The maturation and division of hematopoietic stem cells is influenced by ____> These molecules are all growth factors colony-stimulating factors
Release histamine, which promotes inflammation basophils
The cytoplasm is a thin ring around the nucleus. Lymphocytes
Contain cytoplasmic granules that stain bright red with eosin Eosinophils
The msot common type of white blood cells. Neutrophils
Two- to four-lobed nuclei neutrophils
Enlarge and become macrophages which engult foreign substances monocytes
Contain large cytoplasmic granules that stain dark blue or purple with basic dyes basophils
Blood is also considered a _____ because it contains dissolved organic and inorganic molecules and ions. These substances include electrolyes, nutrients, gases, and waste produces. solution
Polar substances like __(1)__ and charged substances like __(2)__ dissolve readily in the blood, and nonpolar molecules like __(3)__ do not readily dissolve in blood and require a __(4)__. 1. glucose 2. salts 3. cholesterol 4. transporter protein
Blood is a type of ___ tissue that can be described based on its physical characteristics connective
The average volume of blood in a __(1)__ adult is 5 to 6 L. A __(2)__ adult has an average blood volume of 4 to 5 L. 1. male 2. female
The color of blood depends upon whether it is oxygen-rich or oxygen poor. Oxygen-rich blood is __(1)__. bright red
Contrary to popular belief, oxygen-poor blood is not __(1)__; rather, oxygen-poor blood is __(2)__ 1. blue 2. dark red
The structure of hemoglobin consists of __ chains 4
Two of the chains of hemoglobin are __(1)__ and two are __(2)__ proteins 1. alpha 2. beta
Each of the protein chains are conjugated to a nonprotein ____ group. heme
Heme group contains a(n) __ ion in the center iron
There are 4 of these groups that will blind ____ for delivery to body tissues oxygen
prevents clot formation anticoagulant, antithrombin, heparin
Required for clot formation fibrinogen, thrombin
breaks down clots plasmin, plasminogen, streptokinase
Albumins - most abundant - transport hormones and fatty acids
globulins transport iron and lipids
fibrinogen becomes long, insoluble strands when activated
regulatory proteins enzymes
Transportation - distribution of absorbed nutrients throughout the body - movement of carbon dioxide from respiring tissues to the lungs - mechanism of hormone distribution
protection platelets mechanically and chemically work to plug holes in blood vessels due to trauma
Regulation vasoconstriction and vasodilation due to temperature changes
The normal range of leukocytes in circulating blood ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter, where 50-70% of these are __(1)__, 20-40% are __(2)__, 2-8% are __(3)__, 1-4% are __(4)__, and less than 1% are __(5)__ 1. neutrophils 2. lymphocytes 3. monocytes 4. eosinophils 5. basophils
Factor XII catalyzes the formation of a plasma enzyme called kallikrein, that in turn converts an inactive protein into ___, a fibrin-dissolving enzyme that breaks up the clot plasmin
About 95% of the volume of formed elements; transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Red blood cells (RBCs) ; Erythrocytes
Most of the remaining 5% of the volume of the formed elements; are involved in immunity White blood Cells (WBCs) ; Leukocytes
Tiny cell fragments; making a negligible contribution to plasma volume, are involved in blood clotting Platelets; Thrombocytes
When a blood vessel is damaged, the __(1)__ fibers within the connective tissue beneath the endothelial cells in the vessel wall become exposed. Platelets adhere to these fibers with the assistance of a plasma protein called __(2)__. 1. collagen 2. von Willebrand Factor
As the platelets start to stick to the vessel wall, their morphology changes dramatically. They develop ____ that further adhere them to the blood vessel wall. long processes
As more and more platelets aggregate to the site, a(n) __(1)__ develops to close off the injury. This is a __(2)__ measure to block the flow of blood to an area where a vessel wall is damaged. 1. platelet plug 2. temporary
Platelets undergo morphologic change and become activated. Their cytoplasm ____ releasing chemicals to assist with homeostasis degranulates
White Blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils formed element
water, proteins, wastes, electrolyes plasma
- Decreased with radiation therapy - elevated in tissue necrosis neutrophils
- elevated in multiple myeloma - decreased with HIV and sepsis Lymphocytes
Elevated in parasitic infections Eosinophils
Decreased in prolonged steroid theraphy Monocytes
- decreased in acute allergic reactions - elevated in myeloproliferative disorders Basophils
Under the microscope, a leukocyte has a bilobed nucleus and pink granules in the cytoplasm. This is probable a(n) ___ eosinophil
A simple protein that makes up approximately 58% of the plasma proteins. Many act as transport molecules. Albumin
A simple protein that makes up approximately 38% of the plasma proteins. Many act as part of the immune system. Globulin
A protein that forms blood clots Fibrin
Plasma without the clotting factors. Serum
The liquid portion of blood connective tissue Plasma
- smallest - maintain blood pressure and volume albumins
antibodies globulins
involved in blood clotting fibrinogen
hormones regulatory proteins
_____ blood cells are the most common cells found in blood red
There are about five ____ red blood cells in each microliter of blood. million
Red blood cells are produced by the bone marrow and have a lifespan of 3 to 4 _____ months
When red blood cells die, they are destroyed by __(1)___ in the liver and spleen. This processes releases __(2)__ to be stored in the liver and bile pigments to be excreted macrophages
- also known as clotting - includes intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms - includes a vast enzymatic cascade of proteins produced by the liver Coagulation
- Involves the disruption of prostacyclin - Involves endothelial collagen exposure Platelet Plug Formation
first state in hemostasis vascular spasm
- second messenger - muscle contraction calcium
component of gastric acid chloride
fuel molecule for cellular respiration glucose
plasma membrane component cholesterol
Anemia is more likely with increasing age because the amount of red bone marrow decreases
neutrophil, basophil, and eosinophil cells are all granulocyte
monocyte, T-lymphocyte, B-Lymphocyte, macrophage, plasma cells are all agranulocyte
The cell fragments that are a component of blood are platelets
Plasma is composed of about ___ water 92%
The line of blood cell development that results in the formation of erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and all leukocytes except for lymphocytes is the ____ line. myeloid
The production of platelets is called thrombopoiesis
From the myeloid stem cell, a committed cell called a __(1)__ is produced. It matures under the influence of the hormone __(2)__ to form a __(3)__. These cells have a large size and dense, multilobed nucleus 1. megakaryoblast 2. thrombopoietin 3. megakaryocyte
Megakaryocyte each produce long extensions from themselves called __(1)__. While still attached, these extensions pass through the blood vessel wall in the red bone marrow. The force from the blood flow "slices" these extensions into __(2)__ 1. proplatelets 2. platelets
3. The hormone will stimulate the red blood marrow to ___ RBCs. produce
1. Hypoxia is inadequate oxygen ___ and can be detected by the kidneys and liver transport
5. Thus the correction of hypoxemia is controlled by a ___ feedback loop negative
4. This will result in an increase of ____ transport throughout the body oxygen
2. When detected ____ is produced and secreted erythropoietin
Approximately 5 million cells per microliter (μL) of blood Red Blood Count (RBC)
Approximately 16 grams (g)/100 mL of blood Hemoglobin
Approximately 46% of the total blood volume hematocrit
Approximately 7000 cells per microliter of blood White Blood Count (WBC)
250,000-400,000 per microliter of blood platelet
Transport respiratory gases erythrocyte
- Includes B- and T-cell subpopulations -Destroy cancerous and virally infected cells Lymphocyte
- Produce histamine and heparine - Initiate the inflammatory response Basophil
Increase in number during parasitic infections Eosinophil
Differentiate into tissue macrophages Monocyte
The first stage of hemostasis is ____, where the damaged blood vessel constricts suddenly vascular spasm
50-70% neutrophils
- 20-40% - elevated in viral infections lymphocytes
1-4% eosinophils
2-8% monocytes
< 1% basophils
- resistance of a fluid to flow - results from the cohesion of fluid's particles - thickness or stickiness of a fluid - when elevated the blood flows sluggishly viscosity
- governs rate of reabsorption between the bloodstream and tissue fluid - fluid transfer depends on a balance between capillary filtration and reabsorption osmolarity
In a patient, the differential count shows neutrophil levels are very high. This may indicate a(n) bacterial infection
_____ blood cells are responsible for the defense system in the body. White
There are approximately 5 to 10 ____ white blood cells per microliter of blood. thousand
Like red blood cells, the white blood cells are formed from the stem cells of the_____ bone marrow
The typical WBC has a lifespan of a couple of ____ days
-Elevated in tissue necrosis - decreased with radiation therapy neutrophils
- elevated in multiple myeloma - decreased with HIV and sepsis Lymphocytes
elevated in parasitic infections eosinophils
- decreased in prolonged steroid therapy monocytes
- decreased in acute allergic reactions - elevated in myeloproliferative disorders basophils
The most abundant formed elements of the blood is/are erythrocytes
- Blood carries oxygen to the tissues of the body - Movement of carbon dioxide from respiring tissue to lungs - movement of urea to the kidneys transportation
- formed elements help destroy pathogens - globulins sequester and contribute to elimination of infectious agents protection
bicarbonate buffers acids and bases regulation
transport of respiratory gases erythrocyte
differentiate into cells the produce antibodies lymphocyte
increase in number during bacterial ifnections neutrophil
vasodilatory and anticoagulatory function basophil
increase in number during parasitic infections eosinophil
involved with immune clearance monocyte
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the globin chains are broken down by macrophages into amino acids.
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the iron - is transported by transferrin to the liver. - is transported by transferrin to the spleen. - is transported by transferrin to the red bone marrow. - All of the choices are correct.
The sequence in the breakdown of the non-iron portion of the heme is heme, biliverdin, bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, bilirubin derivatives, feces, and urine.
True or false: Free bilirubin is transported by the blood to the liver. True
True or false: Iron is transported in the blood by transferrin. true
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the globin chains are broken down by macrophages into amino acids.
In the breakdown of hemoglobin, the iron -is transported by transferrin to the liver. -is transported by transferrin to the spleen. -is transported by transferrin to the red bone marrow. -All of the choices are correct.
Created by: elizabethcosio