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Mesopotamia a Greek word meaning 'between the rivers'. The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates which flow through modern Iraq. The Euphrates also flows through much of Syria.
Northern Mesopotamia made up of hills and plains. The land is quite fertile due to seasonal rains, and the rivers and streams flowing from the mountains. Early settlers farmed the land and used timber, metals and stone from the mountains nearby.
Southern Mesopotamia made up of marshy areas and wide, flat, barren plains. Cities developed along the rivers which flow through the region. Early settlers had to irrigate the land along the banks of the rivers in order for their crops to grow. Less resources from the North!
Ziggurats The Mesopotamians constructed ziggurats (massive temples). A ziggurat had staircases leading to its top, where a religious shrine stood. The early ziggurats are some the oldest monuments in the world.
Hammurabi's Code Hammurabi, ruler of Ancient Babylon, to be the first example of written legal laws for the civilization to follow. The Code is made up of 282 laws and includes the famous phrase of "an eye for an eye." Hammurabi's Code was created around 1780 B.C.
Canals and Irrigation The ancient Mesopotamians were able to build canals to bring water from the rivers to irrigate their cropland.Also they used rivers for transportation. By making good use of a sail, they were able to travel long distances.
Cuneiform Cuneiform was developed by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. They wanted a way to keep records of trade and tax collection. It is the oldest known writing system.
The Wheel Ancient Sumer , southern Mesopotamia and may have been the first civilization to use the wheel. Sumerian pottery wheels, Wheeled carts, and wagons helped carry things. Early wheeled chariots let soldiers move faster in battle.
Bronze The Mesopotamians created bronze metal by combining copper and tin. Bronze was an important discovery. It is more durable and stiff than copper and was used to make weapons and jewelry. This discovery also ushered in the Bronze Age.
The Plow Mesopotamians used the plow to make their farmland more productive. They used oxen to pull plows through their fields.
Polytheism Polytheism is the belief in more than one god or several gods. Most ancient cultures were polytheistic, believing that different gods controlled different aspects of nature and everyday life. Ea, Enlil, and Anu are examples of Sumerian gods.
Good and Evil Religion was very important in the Mesopotamian civilization. These people thought the gods were responsible for good and evil. They were concerned about demons. To keep demons away, they would put up statues and pictures to scare the demons away.
Created by: smartgenius26