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Chapter 21

What Condition is probably most necessary for a monarch to gain power? Why? Decline of feudalism, colonial wealth, religious conflicts, and territorial conflicts.
What is the significance of England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada? It weakened Spain and opened the way for more European ventures in the Americas.
Why did the Dutch revolt against Spain? Because Philip II raised taxes and tried to crush Protestantism.
Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power? Because they believed their power was God-given.
What does the art described in this section reveal about the cultures of Spain and the Netherlands? Religion and the monarchy were central to Spanish culture. Merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class were prominent in the culture of the Netherlands.
What role did religion play in the struggle between the Spanish and the Dutch? Philip II thought it was his duty to defend Catholicism and tried to crush Protestantism in the Netherlands.
How did the lack of a middle class contribute to the decline of Spain’s economy? There were few business people to stimulate economic growth at home or to promote trade abroad.
Which events on your timeline strengthen the French monarchy? Which weakened it? Strengthened- 1643, Louis XIV becomes king; 1661, Louis takes control of the government Weakened- 1701-1713, War of Spanish Succession
What impact did the French religious war have on the French thinkers? It turned the French thinkers toward Skepticism
How did Jean Baptiste Colbert intend to stimulate economic growth in France? He intended to stimulate economic growth in France with mercantilist policies to make France self-sufficient.
What was the result of the War of the Spanish Succession? France and Spain were not allowed to unite; Britain gained Gibraltar; Austrian Hapsburgs took Spanish Netherlands
Many historians think of Louis as the perfect example of an absolute monarch. Do you agree? Explain why or not. Agree- he controlled the economy, regulated worship, weakened the nobility, and built a magnificent palace to show his power
How did the policies of Colbert and Louis XIV affect the French economy? Explain both positive and negative effects. Helped/Positive- Built up and protected French Industries Hurt/Negative- Drove out the Huguenots and overspent on buildings and wars
To what extent did anti-Protestantism contribute to Louis’s downfall? Cancelling the Edict of Nantes cost France many skilled workers, and wars against Protestant countries damaged the French economy
What patterns do you see in the causes of these conflicts? James I- Money and reform of the English church; Charles I- Money, rule of law, and Anglican rituals; James II- Appointment of Catholic officials
Why was the death of Charles I revolutionary? Never before had a reigning monarch faced a public trial and execution
What rights were guaranteed by the Habeas Corpus Act? The right to have a judge decide whether a prisoner should be tried or set free
How does a constitutional monarchy differ from an absolute monarchy? Under a constitutional monarchy, laws written by a legislative body limit the ruler’s power
In your opinion, which decisions by Charles I made his conflict with parliament worse? Expain? Dissolving parliament and ignoring the Petition of Right
Why do you think James II fled to France when William of Orange led his army to London? James II may have feared being arrested and executed
What conditions in England made the execution on one king and the overthrow of another possible? The power of Parliament
Created by: mshirman